A 60-year-old woman has just been diagnosed with osteoporosis. She does not understand how this could be possible, as she has always been a milk drinker.
In responding to your peers, please expand on the pathophysiology of both normal bone formation and abnormal bone formation (as discussed in your textbook), identifying the minerals and hormones involved in the process. Please include at least one source in your response.
To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.
McCance and Huether (2019) describes osteoporosis (OP) as the most common bone disease in humans. It is characterized by love bone mineral density (BMD), impaired structural integrity of the bone, decreased bone strength, and the risk of fracture (pg. 1432). OP can be diagnosed by performing a bone density study (Bone Densitometry). “DXA scans of the central skeleton to measure BMD of the lumbar spine and hip. Central DXA examinations have three major roles, namely the diagnosis of OP, the assessment of patients’ risk of fracture, and monitoring response to treatment” (Blake & Fogelman, 2007).
When discussing risk factors, I would include the following:
The above is a list of uncontrollable risk factors. There are many things that women can do to help prevent OP. Some interventions include getting regular weight bearing exercise, proper diet, refrain from smoking and limit alcohol intake (Camacho, 2019).
For many patients, fracture is the first indication of low BMD. We all know fractures are uncomfortable and cause pain. Location of the fracture can cause an increase in the amount of pain a patient feels. Most fractures due to low BMD occur in the hip, wrist, and spine. Having a fracture of the wrist may not be as painful as a fracture of the spine. “Health technology includes not only drugs, medical equipment, and devices but also prevention, diagnostic, and treatment procedures” (Hiligsmann, Kanis, Compston, Cooper, Flamion, Bergmann, & Reginster, (2013).
Bony pain and be acute or chronic and pain levels can range from mild to severe or achy or sharp in nature. Bony pain is one of the most uncomfortable pains patients will experience as it can be hard to treat. “Chronic pain in OP has sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects, all of which interact and contribute to the final response of an individual who is subjected to pain” (Paolucci, Saraceni, & Piccinini, 2016).
References: A 60-year-old woman has just been diagnosed with osteoporosis
Blake, G. M., & Fogelman, I. (2007). The role of DXA bone density scans in the
diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Postgraduate medical journal,
83(982), 509–517. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2007.057505
Camacho, P. (2019). Risk factors for osteoporosis. Retrieved from
Reginster, J. Y. (2013). Health technology assessment in osteoporosis. Calcified tissue international,
93(1), 1–14. doi:10.1007/s00223-013-9724-8
Hiligsmann, M., Kanis, J. A., Compston, J., Cooper, C., Flamion, B., Bergmann, P., Reginster, J. Y.
(2013). Health technology assessment in osteoporosis. Calcified tissue international, 93(1), 1–14.
McCance, K., & Huether, S. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults
and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Paoluci, T., Saraceni, V. M., & Piccinini, G. (2016). Management of chronic pain in osteoporosis:
challenges and solutions. Journal of pain research, 9, 177–186. doi:10.2147/JPR.S83574
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