Steps of Addictions Assessment Processes
Addiction may take many forms. A person may be addicted to a substance, such as cocaine, or a behavior, such as gambling. Individuals who enter into addictions assessment generally have exhibited certain hallmarks of addiction, such as an increase in the behavior, problems in relationships and life functioning, and withdrawal symptoms upon ceasing the behavior.
Someone with a potential addiction may be facing a host of issues. He or she might require medical and/or legal help. A teenager may be a minor requiring parental consent for any treatment and might already be receiving help from a guidance counselor or school psychologist. It is true that individual assessments have unique features and should be tailored to the needs of and aspects related to each individual being assessed. However, there are important steps common to most assessments that allow addictions professionals to gather reliable, valid, and relevant information about the clients they serve, as well as to enlist the best set of professionals to form the multidisciplinary team.
This week, you describe the steps of a standard addictions assessment and reflect on the importance of using a multidisciplinary team.
Review the Learning Resources, including the following:
Chemical Dependency Counseling: A Practical Guide
Chapter 1, “The First Contact”
Chapter 14, “The Clinical Staff”
Submit by Sunday 3/5/17 a 2- to 4-page paper that includes the following:
The steps of an addictions assessment
An explanation of why each step is important
One example of a multidisciplinary team and the contribution each of the team members might make to the assessment
Cite your sources using APA guidelines.
Answer all components in the assignment as there are usually several. These can serve as your headings in APA format. Using these headings will help keep your paper organized, ensure you cover all objectives, and enhance readability. You may find that if you bullet-point these requirements and refer to them as you write, you will address all of the portions of the question.
Perkinson, R. R. (2012). Chemical dependency counseling: A practical guide (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
. Chapter 1, “The First Contact” Focus on the descriptions of client perspectives in the “Treatment Works” and “How to Develop the Therapeutic Alliance” sections and how these descriptions relate to the codes of ethics and principles addictions professional should follow (see this week’s Discussion area). Also focus on the information on treatment facilities and group practice to learn more about the need for multidisciplinary teams for your Assignment.
. Chapter 14, “The Clinical Staff” Focus on the various types of professionals that might need to be included in the multidisciplinary team.
· American Psychological Association. (2013). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx Focus on the Preamble, which provides a rationale for following codes of ethical principles and standards. Focus also on the General Principles, which sets the stage for other information on ethics violations.
· The Association for Addiction Professionals. (2013). NAADAC code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.naadac.org/resources/codeofethics Focus on the standards listed in the section titled “The Counseling Relationship” for an excellent overview of expected behavior on the part of counselors.
Perkinson, R. R. (2012). Chemical dependency counseling: A practical guide (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
1 The First Contact
Someone you know and love is dying of addiction . No one , even the addict , knows the extent of the disease that is poisoning his or her body. More than half of Americans drink, and many of them inno- cently fall victim to this silent killer. Addicts live their lives deeply alone, immersed in self-told lies. They could not tell you the truth if they wanted to , because they do not know what the truth is. They are living in a world of carefully con- structed self-betrayal: "I am fine . I can stop anytime I want. I do not drink or use any more than my friends drink. " "Everybody loves to gamble. It is so much fun, and I win." "I was born to use speed." At times , the addicts want to cut down or stop and they try, but they always fail-repeatedly they fail. Addicts live in world full of self-hatred and shame . They do not want any- one to know the terrible truth about their pain. They put on a false front of being fine. You might suspect something is wrong, and you would be right, but there seems to be little you can do to help an addict see the truth . Most addicts die of their addiction . Ninety-five percent of untreated alcoholics die of
2 CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY COUNSELING
alcoholism an average of 26 years early. The death certificate might read heart disease, cancer, or some- thing else to protect the family, but the real reason is addiction .
Addiction is more than a behavior problem. Repeated drug use causes long-lasting changes in the brain, so the addict loses voluntary control. Addicts are obsessed with doing what they hate doing. The addiction is the only way they know how to feel normal. Not to use causes withdrawal, which is too painful to consider. In time, the addict's brain changes to the point that they cannot get high and they cannot get sober. This is when addicts feel hopeless , helpless, and powerless, and their lives are unmanageable. This is when many of them come in for treatment.
In America, 51.1% of the population drinks alcohol , and a little less than a third of them will have a substance use disorder sometime in their lifetime (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2007). In the United States, almost one million people die of substance abuse disorders annually. This does not count the people who die of diabetes, coronary artery disease, and can- cer caused by drinking, smoking, poor eating, and lack of exercising. Heavy drinking or drug use contrib- utes to illnesses in each of the top three causes of death: heart disease, cancer, and stroke . At least 13 .8 million Americans develop problems associated with drinking. Over many years of following alcohol and drug problems, studies find that 78% of high school seniors have tried alcohol. Fifty-three percent have tried illegal drugs. Fifty-seven percent of high school seniors have tried cigarettes, and 27% are current smokers. Addiction is one of the most horrible plagues to attack the human race . According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , 25% of Americans die as a direct result of substance abuse (Heron et al. , 2009).
Millions of Americans are dying annually of preventable conditions.
• 443 ,000 die of tobacco products. • 365,000 die of improper diet and exercise habits. • 75 ,000 die of alcohol abuse. • 75,000 die of microbial agents. • 55 ,000 of toxic agents. • 32,000 die of adverse reactions to prescription drugs. • 26,000 die of automobile accidents. • 29,000 die offirearms. • 29,300 die of homicide. • 20,000 die of sexual behavior. • 17,000 die of illegal drugs CAnnual Causes of Death in the United States ," 2011).
Most addicts will quit on their own by making a highly motivated personal choice then working hard at recovery, usually with multiple attempts at quitting and periods of relapse and reevaluation. Most of the people who quit on their own have learned about treatment and recovery through someone who is in recovery, or from a health care professional. These people make the choice that the negative conse- quences of continued use outweigh the rewards of continued use . They go through the same motivational steps that a client needs to make in treatment (DiClemente, 2006b). Some clients cannot seem to quit on their own, and they need treatment. We know from many years of scientific experiments that addiction treatment works. For every dollar spent on treatment, the economy saves $7 in heath care and costs to society. Most clients who work a program of recovery stay clean and sober. To get clean, clients have to come out of hiding and use their journey to help others. By sharing our experience, strength, and hope, addicts in recovery give others reasons to get clean. Working the program means getting honest, going to
Chapter 1 The First Contact 3
recovery group meetings , and making conscious contact with a higher power of their own understanding (Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2008; McLellan, 2006).
Your first meeting with an addict might be accidental or it might be by appointment. During the inter- view, you-if you look and listen closely-will sense something is wrong with this person, but you do not know what it is. You have a clinical thermometer inside of you that you will learn to trust. This is more than intuition; it is a gift. The skill is to watch the client so carefully and listen so intensely that you pick up cues that others miss. The person might look depressed and anxious. Her face may be red and swollen, his eyes watery and red, or the person may be markedly thin with scabs caused by "meth bugs." He might have a fine hand tremor or have difficulty sitting still. Sometimes the person's head hangs in depression that looks like shame. Something is wrong, and it will nag at you . That clinical thermometer feels uncomfortable, and you do not like it.
If you are reading this manual, you have probably been a natural born healer all of your life. When you were a little kid, you cared a little more about puppies and kittens than others did. People in school talked to you and told you secrets when they would not talk to anyone else. People recognize a healer when they see one .
There is another side of you that is very different. It has been in trouble with clients like this before. Sometimes being a healer is not good. Sometimes you have to tell people the truth when they do not want to hear it. They can rebel against you and fight. You have learned that sometimes it is best to let the truth go-or worse, lie to yourself and your clients and let them go. You hate that part of yourself, but you have learned how to live with it. After all, you live in a world full of litigation and managed care. Fear has overcome your best judgment many times.
And there is that client sitting in your office , crying out for the healer in you . Clients desperately need someone to tell them the truth. This time if you let the problem go, if you take the easy way out, the client may die. Addiction is like brain cancer. To let this client out of your office without confronting the truth is to be responsible for the client's death.
Yet you have confronted addicts before. Addicts seem to have two sides of them. One side knows they are in trouble while the other side knows they can continue the addiction safely. You and your client are in a life or death battle with the truth. The trick is to help the client win . You are up against a great enemy. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) (2002a) says this illness is "cunning, baffling and powerful" (pp. 58-59).
The battle lines are drawn. The illness inside of the client is confident of victory. It thinks that you will take the easy way out. You will handle the acute problem and let the client go home. You will not ask the questions that could lead to the truth. That would be too much trouble; besides, you are too busy.
The enemy does not know that you are a healer. You will not lie, and you will not let the addict go home to die. You are going to fight. This is who you are, and it is who you will always be. To be anything else leaves you in shame.
The Motivational Interview
So you decide to take action. Either you do this yourself or you call in an addiction professional to do it for you. You suspect your client is addicted. Your client does not even want to know the reason because to know the truth confronts him or her with change. Your job is to go with the client toward the truth. It does no good to go against the client's idea of himself or herself. Arguing with the client will not work because the addict is an expert at giving every excuse in the world for abnormal behavior. If you argue, the client will win because he or she will leave your office convinced you are a bad person. Walk with the client toward the truth. Listen and seek out ambivalence about the negative consequences of continuing the addictive behav- ior. This is client-centered counseling, not self-centered counseling. You must listen so you can step into the client's world and connect with that gentle voice of reason inside of them. That healthy voice is there , and
4 CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY COUNSELING
Sou rce: ©iStockphoto. com/AlexRaths.
your job is to connect with it, empathize with it, and pull for more. The other voice in clients' heads says something else is to blame . They might have a problem, but it has nothing to do with addiction.
As a professional, you are used to your clients being honest with you, but this one is going to lie. The client is not a bad person; he or she is a good person with a bad disease. The disease of addiction lives in and grows in the self-told lie. The client must lie to himself or herself and believe the lie or the illness cannot continue. The client will have a long list of excuses for his or her behavior:
My spouse has a problem.
The police have a problem.
The school has a problem.
My boyfriend has a problem.
I have a physical problem.
I am depressed.
I am anxious .
I have a stomachache.
I cannot sleep.
The excuses go on and on, and they might confuse you if you are caught up in them . They are all part of a tangled web of deceit. Remember, your job is to walk with the client toward the truth, not against the client toward the truth. You are going to spend most of your time agreeing with the client. When the client is honest, you are going to agree. When the client is dishonest, you are going to probe for .the truth. Look at it this way: If the client is listening to you, you can work. If the client is not listening to you, anything you say is useless.
Watch the client's nonverbal behavior very carefully. You are a healer, and you have the gift of supersen- sitivity Your intuition will tell you whether the client is going with you or resisting. When the client goes with you, you feel peace. When the client goes against you, you feel uncomfortable. When the client is ready, you
Chapter 1 The First Contact 5
will educate him or her about the disease. This is a gentle process, and it takes time. If you are in a hurry, this is not going to work.
The client has been using the addiction for a long time to relieve pain . All addictions tell the brain, Good choice! All organisms have a way of finding their way in a complicated lethal environment. They learn which foods are good and which are bad. They find the best way through the jungle. They learn what is safe and what is dangerous. We learn these things deep in the reptilian brain. What is good is remembered. If it is very good, it is remembered after one experience. The addiction has been good to this client for many years, but now it is destructive. The very thing that gave the client joy now gives pain. This process fools the client. Remember, the addiction has always said, Good choice! So how can it be a bad choice? You are fighting with the client's basic understanding of the world, and he or she will be convinced that you are wrong. You must help the client see that the addiction is no longer a good choice-it is a deadly choice. The addict cannot see this alone, but AA has an old saying: "What we cannot do alone, we can do together. " The client cannot discover the truth without your help. You must guide the client toward a decision he or she finds impossible. You need to help clients see that they need to stop the addictive behavior.
What you are looking for is the truth. The client will rarely tell you accurate symptoms. You have to look for signs of the disease. You will continue to investigate-testing; smelling the air; ordering laboratory stud- ies; and talking to family, friends, court workers, school personnel, and anyone else who can help you until you uncover the truth.
Your client cannot tell you the truth because the client does not know the truth. Addiction hijacks a cli- ent's thinking, a web of self-deception. Remember, you are the healer. You care for your clients even if they hate themselves. You are going to love them even though they are being deceptive. You are going to help them even though they do not understand what you are doing.
How to Develop the Therapeutic Alliance
From the first contact, your client is learning some important things about you . You are friendly You are on his or her side. You are not going to beat up, shame, or blame your client. You answer any questions. You are honest, and you hold nothing back. You discuss every option in detail. You are committed to do what is best for the client. You provide the information, and the client makes the decisions. The client sees you as a concerned professional. In time, the client begins to hope that you can help. The therapeutic alliance is built from an initial foundation of love, trust, and commitment.
You show the client that he or she does not have to feel alone. Neither of you can recover alone. Both of you are needed in cooperation with each other to solve the problem. The client knows things that you do not know. The client knows himself or herself better than anyone else does, and he or she needs to learn how to share his or her life with you. Likewise, you have knowledge that the client does not have. You know the tools of recovery
The client must trust you. To establish this trust, you must be honest and consistent. You must prove to the client, repeatedly, that you are going to be actively involved in his or her individual growth . You are not going to argue or shame the client; you are going to try to understand him or her. When you say you are going to do something, you do it. When you make a promise, you keep it. You never try to get something from a client without using the truth. You never manipulate, even to get something good. The first time a client might catch you in a lie, even a small one, your alliance is weakened.
If you work in a treatment facility or group practice, the client must learn that your staff works as a team. You can share with the whole team what the client tells you-even in confidence. The client will occasionally test this. The client will tell you that he or she has something to share, but that it can only be shared with you. The client wants you to keep it secret. Many early professionals fall into this trap. The truth is that all facts are friendly and all information is vital to recovery. You must explain to the client that if he or she feels too uncomfortable sharing certain information that the client should keep it secret for the time being. Maybe they can share this information later when they feel more comfortable.
The client must understand that you are committed to his or her recovery, but you cannot recover for the client. You cannot do the work by yourself. You must work together, cooperatively You can only teach the tools of recovery. The client must use the tools to stay sober.
6 CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY COUNSELING
How to Do a Motivational Interview
In the first interview, you begin to motivate clients to see the truth about their problem . Questions about alcohol and other drug use are most appropriately asked as a part of the history of personal habits, such as use of tobacco products and caffeine. Questions should be asked candidly and in a non judgmental manner to avoid defensiveness. Remember that this is client-centered interviewing, not professional-centered, and the interview should incorporate the following elements (with the client being free of alcohol at the time of the screening) (DiClemente, 2006a; Prochaska, 2003) :
• Offer empathic, objective feedback of data. • Work with ambivalence. • Meet the client's expectations. • Assess the client's readiness for change. • Assess barriers and strengths significant to recovery efforts. • Reinterpret the client's experiences in light of the current problem . • Negotiate a follow-up plan. • Provide hope.
Exa mple of a Mo tivational In terview
Professional: Hello, Frank, I am ________ _ (your name). Why did you come in to see me today?
Client: My wife wanted me to talk to you.
Professional: Why did she want that?
Client: I do not know.
Professional: I talked to your wife on the phone yesterday, and she said she was concerned about your drinking .
Client: She is always concerned about something. Her father was an alcoholic so she thinks everyone drinks too much. (The client looks irritated.)
Professional: Sounds like things are not going well at home? (The professional mirrors the client's feelings and facial expression. When you mirror a person 's expression, you validate his or her worldview.)
Client: I do not know. It is just that she gets all worked up about everything.
Professional: Your wife said you have been drinking heavily every day. She is afraid for you.
Client: I work hard , and I like to come home and relax with a few beers. Is anything wrong with that? (The client is obviously irritated with coming to the interview. So Ja r, the client is saying, My wife has a lot of problems.)
Professional: There 's nothing wrong with relaxing. How do you relax? (The professional goes with the cli- ent's point of view.)
Client: I have a couple of beers. So what.
Professional: Your wife says you have been drinking a 12-pack a day
Client: It is not that much.
Professional: Are you drinking more than a couple of beers a day? (The professional is gently pulling for the truth.)
Chapter 1 The First Contact 7
Client: Maybe a little more.
Professional: Is it around 12?
Client: I work hard, and I deserve to relax. (Tbe client is resisting, and the professional backs off a little. It is important to keep the client's ears open. Be empathic, tender, and understanding. Try to see the problem from the client's point of view. Once you enter the client's world and under- stand his or her point of view, you will get clues about what will motivate the client to change. This client is mad at his wife and he needs some help with that, but what is his real problem?)
Professional: I like to relax after a hard day, too. Your wife sounds afraid for you. What is frightening her?
Client: My wife just sits around all day and watches television while I am working my tail off.
Professional: So you really need to relax when you come home. Particularly if you feel like you are pulling the load all by yourself?
Client: Yeah , she sits around and thinks about things to argue with me about.
Professional: Do you think your wife loves you? (This is pulling the client toward the truth. Why is his wife worried about him?)
Client: Well , yeah, I think she does. (The client visibly softens.)
Professional: It is great to have a wife who loves you.
Sounds like you are a lucky man. (The professional reinterprets the client's expe- rience in light of the alcohol problem.)
But I am not drinking too much. I am just drinking a few beers.
Professional: You said it was 12 . (The professional reminds the client what he said earlier to cement the fact.) What is the most beer you have ever drunk in a full day?
Client: Oh, I do not know.
Professional: Give me a guess.
Client: Well, on the weekends I can drink up to a case if I am watching a ball game.
Professional: That is a lot of beer. (The professional determines the client is an alcoholic but does not jump the gun; the client is not ready yet.)
Client: Not if I am drinking all day.
Professional: Did you know that if you drink more than three beers a day; more than three times a week, your organs are dying? Alcohol is a poison. It kills the brain, heart, kidneys, every cell in the body. If you are drinking more than three drinks per day, you are
More substance abuse pictures are available at www.brainplace.com.
8 CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY COUNSELING
literally killing yourself. That might be why your wife is worried about you? (The professional believes the client's ears are open, so it is time to try a little education.)
I want to show you a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan pictures of a healthy brain and a brain of someone who abuses alcohol.
The client quickly looks away He does not want to see a picture of his brain dying. However, he did see it, and he could not make that fact go away. He has to rapidly deny the professional's statements and the pictures or admit that he has a problem. A part of him knows he has a drinking problem, and now it is con- firmed. It is not only his wife 's opinion but now a picture and a professional's opinion confirm the diagnosis. He has not admitted it yet, but he knows he has been drinking too much.
The professional begins negotiating and assessing the client's readiness for change.
Professional: Bob, have you ever worried about your drinking?
Client: No, honestly, I have not. (This comes across as real. When the words and the client's affect match, they are probably telling the truth. Most addicts think their addictive behavior is normal.)
Professional: Maybe that is because you did not understand how much you could drink safely If alcohol is killing you, do you not want to know?
Client: Well, sure.
Professional: Looking at these pictures, and thinking about how much you have been drinking, do you think you have been drinking too much? (The professional is taking the biggest chance of all.)
Client: Maybe? (Maybe is very close to a yes. The client has admitted that he drinks too much. That moves him from the precontemplation phase to the contemplation phase. For the first time, he is considering the negative consequences of his drinking. This is a huge step toward recovery.)
Professional: Did you know that 95% of untreated alcoholics die of their alcoholism? And they die 26 years earlier than they would otherwise.
The client says nothing.
Professional: Knowing what you know now, would you like to learn how to drink less or even stop drinking entirely? (The professional is negotiating how far the client is willing to go to get better.)
Client: I did not know it was that bad. (Now the client is contemplating change. We are on the road to recovery. With a gentle approach, the professional can negotiate and listen to the client's life from his or her perspective, allowing the client to move toward the truth.)
Professional: Why don't we meet again with your wife and talk about what we can do to help you two feel better? Would that be all right with you?
Client: If you think it will help.
Professional: Most people who try to get better get better.
Client: Okay, let's do it. (A commitment to change has occurred. Now the client realizes he has a problem and is making plans to take action. These are the first giant steps toward recovery.)
Chapter 1 The First Contact 9
Questions to Ask the Adult Client
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has developed the following low-risk drinking guidelines:
Men should drink no more than two drinks a day and no more than four drinks on a single occasion.
Women and clients over 65 years of age should drink no more than one drink a day and no more than three drinks on a single occasion.
Pregnant clients and those with medical problems complicated by alcohol use should abstain completely ("U.S. Surgeon General Releases Advisory on Alcohol Use in Pregnancy," 2005).
We could also add that no person should ingest an illegal substance.
If a person cannot stop something they want to stop, it is an addiction.
At some time during the first interview, certain questions need to be asked to assess addiction problems. They have to be answered honestly to give you a clear picture of the extent of the problem . Most clients who have addiction problems will be evasive or deny their addiction, so the questions should be asked of the client, as well as a reliable family member.
The following questions and flags are taken from the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) (http://www.asam.org):
1. Have you ever tried to cut down on your drinking?
2. Have you ever felt annoyed when someone talked to you about your drinking?
3. Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your drinking?
4. Have you ever had a drink in the morning to settle yourself down?
5. Has alcohol or drugs ever caused your family problems?
6. Has a physician ever told you to cut down on or quit use of alcohol?
7. When drinking/using drugs, have you ever had a memory loss or a blackout?
Similar questions could be asked about gambling or any other addictive behavior. If clients answer yes to any one of these questions, it is a red flag for addiction. If they answer yes to two questions, it is probably addiction. Make sure you do not just ask the client. Ask family members, friends, and anyone else who can give you collateral information. (See Figures 1.1 through 1.5.)
Figure 1.1 Client History/Behavioral Observation Red Flags for Addiction I
Evidence of current intoxication
Prescription drug-seeking behavior
Frequent falls; unexplained bruises
Diabetes-elevated blood pressure; ulcers nonresponsive to treatment
Suicide talk/attempt; depression
Pregnancy (screen all)
Figure 1.2 Laboratory Reel Flags for Adult Alcohol/Drug Abuse
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)-Over 95
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)-High
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)-High
Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)-High
Positive urinalysis for alcohol
CHEMI CAL DEPENDEN CY COUNSELING
Figure 1.3 Client History/Behavioral Observation Red Flags for Adolescent Alcohol Abuse
Physical injuries: motor vehicle accident (MVA) , gunshot/knife wound , unexplained or repeated injuries
Evidence of current use (e.g., dilated/pinpoint pupils , tremors, perspiring , tachycardia, slurred/rapid speech)
Persistent cough (cigarette smoking is a risk factor)
Engages in risky behavior (e.g. , unprotected sex)
Marked fall in academic/extracurricular performance
Suicide talk/attempt; depression
Sexually transmitted diseases
Staphylococcus infection on face , arms, legs
Unexplained weight loss
Pregnancy (screen all)
Figure 1.4 Laboratory Red Flags for Adolescent Alcohol/Drug Abuse
• Positive urinalysis for alcohol/illicit drugs • Hepatitis A-B-C • GGT-High • SGOT-High • Bilirubin-High
Figure 1.5 Interview Questions for Suspected Addiction Among Adolescents
Questions to Ask the Adolescent Client
1. When did you first use alcohol on your own, away from family/caregivers?
2. How often do you use alcohol or drugs? When was your last use?
3. How often have you been drunk or high?
Cnapter 1 The First Contact
I . Has your alcohol or drug use caused you problems with your friendships, family, school, community, etc.? Have your grades slipped? 5 . Have you had problems with the law?
6. Have you ever tried to qu
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