Assignment: Alteration in Metabolism
Module 10 Written Assignment – Exemplars Fill out the Alteration in Metabolism Exemplar Table. Submit your completed assignment by following the directions linked below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates. Alterations in Metabolism Obesity Hyperthyroid Hypothyroid Pathophysiology Risk Factors Assessment Findings (including Labs) Possible Nursing Diagnosis Interventions (including Medications)
Cancer metabolism has emerged as an important area of research in recent years. Elucidation of the metabolic differences between cancer and normal cells and the underlying mechanisms will not only advance our understanding of fundamental cancer cell biology but also provide an important basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies and novel compounds to selectively eliminate cancer cells by targeting their unique metabolism. This article reviews several important metabolic alterations in cancer cells, with an emphasis on increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) and glutamine addiction, and discusses the mechanisms that may contribute to such metabolic changes. In addition, metabolic alterations in cancer stem cells, mitochondrial metabolism and its influence on drug sensitivity, and potential therapeutic strategies and agents that target cancer metabolism are also discussed.Cancer cells have long been known to exhibit profound alterations in their metabolism, as exemplified by the Warburg effect, a phenomenon of cancer cells with elevated aerobic glycolysis–. Reprogramming of the cellular energy metabolism constitutes an emerging hallmark of cancer and may serve as a biochemical basis for new therapeutic intervention. Tremendous efforts in recent years have been devoted to unveiling the underlying mechanisms for metabolic alterations in cancer, thus triggering considerable research interest in mitochondria, bioenergetics, and redox regulation in normal and malignant cells. Both glucose and glutamine are key metabolic substrates in cancer cells and are critical for cancer development, invasion, and metastases –. Glutamine is an abundant amino acid in human plasma and is present at high concentrations in the medium used for in vitro cell culture. Several oncogenes, including c-Myc and Ras, have been identified to promote the expression of metabolic enzymes and regulators that lead to preferential use of glycolysis over mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Loss of tumor suppressors, such as p53, fumarate hydratase (FH), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), also results in significant changes in energy metabolism and may contribute to activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α-dependent pathways and adaptation to tumor hypoxia
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