13. Madrigal VN, Carroll KW, Hexem KR, Faerber JA, Morrison WE, Feudtner C. Parental decision-making preferences in the pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2012;40:2876–2882.
14. Bosslet GT, Pope TM, Rubenfeld GD, Lo B, Truog RD, Rushton CH, Curtis JR, Ford DW, Osborne M, Misak C, et al.; American Thoracic Society ad hoc Committee on Futile and Potentially Inappropriate
Treatment; American Thoracic Society; American Association for Critical Care Nurses; American College of Chest Physicians; European Society for Intensive Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care. An Official ATS/AACN/ACCP/ESICM/SCCM policy statement: responding to requests for potentially inappropriate treatments in intensive care units. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015;191: 1318–1330.
15. Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of biomedical ethics, 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001.
16. Loewy EH, Loewy RS. Textbook of healthcare ethics, 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2004.
17. Lo B. Resolving ethical dilemmas, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
18. Thompson DR, Kaufman D, editors. Critical care ethics: a practice guide, 3rd ed. Mount Prospect, IL: Society of Critical Care Medicine; 2014.
19. Curtis JR, Burt RA. Point: the ethics of unilateral “do not resuscitate” orders: the role of “informed assent”. Chest 2007;132:748–751.
20. Kon AA. Informed nondissent rather than informed assent. Chest 2008; 133:320–321.
21. Kon AA. The “window of opportunity:” helping parents make the most difficult decision they will ever face using an informed non-dissent model. Am J Bioeth 2009;9:55–56.
22. Kon AA. The shared decision-making continuum. JAMA 2010;304: 903–904.
23. Kon AA. Informed non-dissent: a better option than slow codes when families cannot bear to say “let her die.” Am J Bioeth 2011;11:22–23.
24. Curtis JR. The use of informed assent in withholding cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the ICU. Virtual Mentor 2012;14:545–550.
Copyright © 2016 by the American Thoracic Society
1336 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Volume 193 Number 12 | June 15 2016
9. Charles C, Whelan T, Gafni A. What do we mean by partnership in making decisions about treatment? BMJ 1999;319:780–782.
10. Heyland DK, Cook DJ, Rocker GM, Dodek PM, Kutsogiannis DJ, Peters S, Tranmer JE, O’Callaghan CJ. Decision-making in the ICU: perspectives of the substitute decision-maker. Intensive Care Med 2003;29:75–82.
11. Anderson WG, Arnold RM, Angus DC, Bryce CL. Passive decision- making preference is associated with anxiety and depression in relatives of patients in the intensive care unit. J Crit Care 2009;24: 249–254.
12. Johnson SK, Bautista CA, Hong SY, Weissfeld L, White DB. An empirical study of surrogates’ preferred level of control over value- laden life support decisions in intensive care units. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011;183:915–921.