Assignment: Culture Care Meanings
In developing the theory, a major hurdle for nurses was to discover culture care meanings, practices, and factors influ- encing care by religion, politics, economics, worldview, environment, cultural values, history, language, gender, and others. These factors needed to be included for culturally competent care. Hence, the Sunrise Model (see Figure 1) was created (Leininger, 1997). The model isnot the theory per se but depicts factors influencing care.
If nurses use the model with the theory, they will discover factors related to cultural stresses, pain, racial biases, and even destructive acts as nontherapeutic to clients. One can also reduce and prevent violence in the workplace, anger, and noncompliance with data findings from the model when used with the three prescribed modes of action (Leininger, 1991, 1997, 2002). And because nurses are the largest group of health care providers, a significant difference in quality care and preventing legal suits can occur. The model used in con- junction with the theory is a powerful means for new knowl- edge and practices in health care contexts.
PURPOSE AND GOAL OF THE THEORY
The central purposeof the theory is to discover and explain diverse and universal culturally based care factors influencing the health, well-being, illness, or death of indi- viduals or groups. Thepurposeandgoalof the theory is to use research findings to provide culturally congruent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of diverse or similar cultures. The three modes for congruent care, decisions, and actions pro- posed in the theory are predicted to lead to health and well- being, or to face illness and death.
190 JOURNAL OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSING / JULY 2002
Definition of Terms
Due to space limitations, the definition of terms can be studied in other sources, which are cited in the reference list at the end of this article.
ASSUMPTIVE PREMISES OF THE THEORY
Due to restricted space, only a few theoretical premises (or “givens”) are presented as examples, with others found in author’s theory references (Leininger, 1991, 1997).
Leininger / CULTURE CARE THEORY 191
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