Assignment: The Carative Factors
Socio-Demographic Characteristics Form
The Socio-Demographic Characteristics Form was developed by the authors. Demographic data collected included a participant’s year of study, age and gender.
The Caring Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale (CNPI-70)
The Caring Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale (CNPI-Long Scale) was developed by Cosette in 2005 to assess attitudes and behaviours which were related to the Watson’s Care Theory. The scale comprised 70 items in 10 subscales: humanism, hope, sensitivity, helping relationship, expression of feelings, problem solving, teaching, environment, needs and spirituality. The scale has the dimensions of importance, competence and feasibility. The lowest score that can be obtained in the three dimensions of the scale is 70 and the highest is 350.
The students rated their addressing perceptions about how realistic attitudes or behaviours on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being ‘not at all’ and 5 being ‘extremely’. The Turkish version validity and reliability were conducted by Atar and Asti (Atar and Asti, 2012). The Turkish version of the scale was used in this study and permission was obtained from the scale’s authors. For internal consistency, the scale’s item-total correlations were 0.56-0.81 and Cronbach’s alphas were 0.99, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively, for the three dimensions.
When participants’ scores increased on the scale, their nurse-patient interaction value related to attitudes and behaviours increased positively (Cossette et al., 2006).
Cossette, along with Pepin, Cote’ and De Courval, also developed a shorter version of the scale (CNP-Short Scale) in 2008; however, they suggested using the 70-item long version for evaluating nursing students’ attitudes and behaviours related to caring nurse-patient interaction (Cossette et al., 2008).
Two things led them to abridge their original scale into a more concise version (CNPI-Short Scale). First, many of their subscales were moderately to highly correlated: this is an empirical reflection of the theoretical nonindependence of the carative factors. Secondly, the lengthy 70-item questionnaire was problematic in the clinical research setting, particularly with severely ill patients. This shortened scale was based on three a priori caring domains that were synthesised from the original ten carative factors (Cossette et al., 2006).
The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI)
This inventory was developed based on the results of the Delphi Report, in which critical thinking and disposition toward it were conceptualised by a group of critical thinking experts (Facione, 1990). The original CCTDI includes 75 items loaded on seven constructs: inquisitiveness, open-mindedness, systematicity, analyticity, truth-seeking, critical thinking selfconfidence and maturity.
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