Assignment: The dependent Variables
All data is presented as mean and standard deviation. The independent variables are the strength- training program and time. The dependent variables are handgrip strength (average score to the nearest kilogram using a handgrip dynamometer), time to complete the Up and Go test, fatigue (distance in millimeters from the lower extreme to the marked line using the Fatigue Questionnaire), depression (total number of depressive answers from the GDS-S), quality of life (score from the QOL-SV survey), adherence (percentage of attendance rates), and resistance knowledge (percentage of correct answers). A Repeated Measures ANOVA within one factor (pre-post) and one between factor (groups) was used to determine differences between pre- and postintervention and among the groups. When significance was found, Bonferoni post hoc test was used to determine differences between groups. In addition, paired t test was used as post hoc test to determine differences between baseline and post intervention. An independent t test was used to determine differences on adherence rates between the EST and ST groups. Level of significance was set at p < .05.
A total of 28 participants completed the study. Two individuals did not complete the study due to medical reasons, and two of the participants did not complete because they moved out of the assisted living facilities. The two strength-training (EST and ST) groups were equal with 9 (8 women, 1 man) participants in the EST group and 9 (7 women, 2 men) participants in the ST group. Ten participants (7 women, 3 men) served as the reference group (R). The average age of participants was 83.8 ± 8.0 years among the three groups. There were no statistically significant differences in age among the groups (p = .07).
On average, the EST group had higher attendance (87.5%) to the strength-training class compared to the ST group (69.2%), and this difference was statistically significant (p = .03). Attendance records were not collected from the R group. Results for the knowledge test are presented in Figure 1. Initially, the knowledge scores of the ST and EST groups were 73.3% and 72.2%, respectively. After 8
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weeks, the average score for the ST and EST groups was 74.7% and 79%, respectively. A Repeated Measures ANOVA determined that after 8 weeks, the mean knowledge score was statistically different from baseline (p < .01). Post-hoc paired t tests revealed that for the EST group the average resistance knowledge score after eight weeks was significantly higher (p < .01) than the baseline score. There was no significant (p > .05) difference in knowledge scores between baseline and posttraining for the ST and R groups (Figure 1).
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