From the first week in the class, you have been developing a research topic of AMERICAN FOOTBALL & CTE(IMPACT ON FAMILY AND FOCUS ON PREVENTATION), through all the stages of development, implementation, and conclusion. For this final assignment, you are being asked to put it all together as you would as if you carried out your study. It is understood that you will have to "invent" your data but try to be as realistic as possible as you formulate your results and conclusions.
Recommend you section (Chapters – centered and bolded in the narrative) the project as such:
I. Introduction (Hooks, Questions, additional introductory materials, and Purpose of the study – in last sentence of the intro)
II. Plan of the Study
III. Review of the Literature
IV. Procedures and Techniques
V. Findings and Interpretations
VI. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
You must demonstrate knowledge of several research methodologies and explain how to choose the appropriate research method for this research project. EACH SECTION MUST BE VERY DETAILED.
Your paper should be clear, engaging, original, and focused. The ideas and content must be richly developed with details and examples. The organization and form should enhance the central idea and theme. The ideas should be presented coherently to move the reader through the text. The voice should be compelling and convey the meaning through effective sentence structure and precise word choices. You must move the paper through academic constructs and experiential documentation to critical analysis.
The paper must demonstrate a clear balance of these components. I HAVE ATTACHED A PAPER TO GUIDE YOU. You must support your arguments and assumptions with MINIMUM 2500 WORDS OF PAPER CONTENT AND 9 scholarly reference. You must use correct APA style and format for your paper. DUE 12/27/18 AT 11AM EST TIME. ABSOLUTELY NO PLAGIARISM, NO GRAMMATICAL ERROR.
AMERICAN FOOTBALL AND CTE 1
AMERICAN FOOTBALL AND CTE 2
American Football and CTE
Over the years, American football has been celebrated throughout the world. It is rated among the World’s most watched sporting events. This sport is however associated with various injuries on the players due to its nature (Korngold, Farrell & Fozdar, 2013). The players often engage in extremely serious actions so as to fascinate their fans. This way, the players experience head traumas repetitively which over time result in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It has been observed that most of the players usually meet their death a short period after their retirement (Omalu &DeKosky, 2005). The rise in the number of American football players has raised a lot of concern to what could possibly be the cause of the deaths whereby some people have associated CTE with their deaths and other possible causes. The objective of this study is to find out the extent to which CTE could have a direct relationship with the death of the players.
For this study, the type of mixed methods research to be used is the sequential explanatory design. Sequential explanatory design involves the collection of data over a given duration in two phases consecutively. Quantitative data is first collected and analyzed. In the second phase, qualitative data is collected and is then used to give an explanation of the quantitative results that were initially obtained (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). The primary benefit of this method is that it increases the chances of achieving results that are more trustworthy as compared to applying the two approaches separately.
Based on this mixed method design, quantitative data will be first listed followed by qualitative data. Since this study is determined to find out if truly there is a direct relationship between the deaths of the players and CTE, the first approach will be to collect the numbers of deaths of players over a given period of time. These statistics will be acquired from the website belong to the National football league. The deaths will be classified based on the cause while putting together those caused by CTE. This way, quantitative data will have been achieved and will be compared to others deaths not associated with CTE to determine the percentages.
After acquiring and analyzing quantitative data, the results obtained will be further verified in the second phase. The next step will involve the collection of qualitative data from analysis of previously researched works on the relationship between CTE and death of players, and also from medical professionals dealing with CTE patients. The results obtained in this phase will be compared and contrasted with the results obtained in the first phase. The similarity levels from the analysis will then help in coming up with the conclusion of the study. The qualitative approach will be applied in providing an explanation for the outcomes of the quantitative approach in order to give a better comprehension of the concepts at hand.
The procedures for mixing within this study will involve the following. The first procedure will involve the selection of a mixed methods strategy to be applied during the study (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). Here, the researcher will select the most preferable design, a visual model of the same and also the reasons for choosing the design. Moreover, the amount of time expected to be consumed by the entire process is factored in. Here, the amount of time expected to be used in collecting and also carrying out analysis of both quantitative data and qualitative data relating to the death of players and CTE will be factored in.
The next procedure involves the procedures for collection of data. In this procedure, the researcher clearly defines the type of data to be collected and the preferred sampling techniques and strategies for the same. Moreover, the approaches to be applied in determining the validity of the data are also defined. The final procedure involves the analysis of data and validation. In this step, the researcher is tasked with transforming the data collected and also exploring outliers. Here, qualitative data on the relationship between the death of players and CTE is quantified thus making it easier for the researcher to compare qualitative and quantitative results. This way, the researcher will then be able to hypothesize whether it is true that the death of players shortly after retirement is a result of CTE or not.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Daly, C. D. (2013). American football. Minnesota History, 19-27.
Korngold, C., Farrell, H. M., & Fozdar, M. (2013). The National Football League and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: legal implications. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 41(3), 430-436.
Omalu, B. I., DeKosky, S. T., Minster, R. L., Kamboh, M. I., Hamilton, R. L., & Wecht, C. H. (2005). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a National Football League player. Neurosurgery, 57(1), 128-134.
Running Head: AMERICAN FOOTBALL & CTE 1
AMERICAN FOOTBALL & CTE 2
What is your research topic?
Mixed methods design
Mixing procedures that you will use (e.g., use qualitative data to explain initial quantitative results or compare and contrast qualitative results with the quantitative results)
Primary benefit of a mixed methods approach?
Based on your mixed methods design, will you list your quantitative or qualitative questions first? Explain.
Write a mixed methods research question that conveys the content goal of the study:
Write a mixed methods research question that conveys the procedures for mixing within the study.
American football has been attractive to many people in America. A significant proportion of the American people have been found to engage in the game in one way or another. The largest proportion is the fan base the attractiveness of the game makes the players engage in more serious action to entertain their fans. The action leads to some injuries on the players, and they end up being treated from time to time (Daly, 2013). Cumulative injuries on the head have been associated with the increased possibility of contracting brain damage and other conditions such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE which threatens the life of the players. Many of the American football players die shortly after their retirement from the games. The increased deaths raise a question about the cause of their death with some people associating the death with CTE and others stating different reasons for their death. There is, however, a concern about the other potential causes of the death of the American football players making it difficult to align the death of the players to CTE. The number of players dying from the spread of CTE is however significant which raises a concern about the problem and how it could be solved (Omalu, 2014). Understanding the cause and other associating factors, therefore, becomes essential to help the victims. This study, therefore, aims at finding out to what extent could CTE be linked to the early death of the American football players after their retirement.
The worldview which best aligns with the topic of the study is postpositivism. The strategy aligns best since the topic is not new to research and some information is known about the topic. Many speculations have been done concerning the topic, and several people have studied the content. Based on this finding the study is, therefore, going to be a continuation trying to explain a specific context about the topic which will boost the understanding of concepts learned in the previous studies. In postpositivism, the study involves capturing something that is already known and has been studied such that it provides a background to the study and trying to pass a concept to people to bring a better understanding (Phillips & Burbules, 2013). The topic about CTE and American football has been common in the past which makes this study to concentrate on the contribution of American football to the CTE deaths.
There has been a previous association of American football to CTE deaths, and some empirical studies have been done based on the statistics. The study has been conducted on the American football players as well as on other areas, and the causes of CTE have been established as extreme trauma. Through the different studies, it was discovered that CTE is caused primarily by the long-term injuries which account for the death of the American football players shortly after their retirement (Daly, 2013). The discoveries and other studies that were done in the past makes the worldview of positivism the most suitable for the context since it does not lead to the discovery of new knowledge but gives more support to a particular position regarding what is already known.
The study will involve mixed research methods that comprise of both quantitative and qualitative study to arrive at a more informed decision. In the quantitative study there will be a collection of information from the national football league website about the players of American football that died and determine the proportion that died out of CTE. The value will be used to perform a comparative study between the proportions that died out of other conditions relative to those that died out of CTE (Omalu, 2014). The portion of the study will be important in computing the statistics about CTE and the number of deaths. The qualitative study will involve a meta-analysis of the different works that were done by other researchers. The different levels of similarities in the findings will help in concluding. The qualitative study will be used to explain the results that will be obtained from the quantitative study to bring a better understanding of the concepts.
Several strategies will be employed in the collection and analysis of the information. For instance, a collection of qualitative data will be informed by the credibility of the source to reduce bias. Documents that are peer-reviewed will be useful in this section to have information that can be reliable. The quantitative data, on the other hand, will be collected from the previous records preserved by the bodies that keep data on the American football players (Daly, 2013). The data collected will be analyzed through descriptive statistics which will inform on the mode, mean, and distribution of the CTE deaths relative to the deaths resulting from other causes.
The success of this study will be done through a literature review to get the necessary information needed to create a background that can be used to understand the topic better. Several topics are important in composing the literature review that will achieve the intended need of creating a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts. Some of the keywords to use during the literature review will include statistics of death resulting from CTE; CTE causes diagnostic and treatment, American football and the number of CTE deaths in the world. Also, there will be information that will bring an understanding of the relationship between American football and CTE deaths. There will also need to search for information on how American football contributes to CTE. The information collected on the literature review will be helpful in finding valuable information relating to American football and CTE linking them together and presenting it as clear as possible to the target audience.
Daly, C. D. (2013). American football. Minnesota History, 19-27.
Omalu, B. (2014). A historical foundation of CTE in football players : before the NFL, there was CTE. Brain Injury, 1116-1123.
Phillips, D. C., & Burbules, N. C. (2013). Postpositivism and educational research. Experimental Neurology, 167-189.
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