This assignment is a conclusion paper that only needs to be 2-3 pages long. It is part of my Public Administration portfolio. I will include writing assignments 2-5 so that you have all the materials I have submitted. I have worked with only 2 selected agencies, the Government Office of Accountability & the CIA. I will also include the criteria for the conclusion. This assignment is needed by 9/17/17, and I willing to pay $15-20. Here are the criteria:
Your position as the consultant is ending and it is time to submit your complete report. In this assignment, you will make final changes for Assignments 2 through 5 and put the sections into one document.
In addition to what you have already completed and compiled for this portfolio, you should write a two to three (2-3) page conclusion in which you:
Describe your final three to five (3-5) observations about the success of the agency, highlighting the value of the agency to U.S. citizens, its success at meeting its goals, and areas where it can improve.
Recommend two or three (2-3) strategies for improvement, providing sound justification for each.
Describe your experience in researching the agency and interviewing representatives, highlighting the value the project has to your career, the positive elements, and the challenges you faced during the process.
Include the required sections with appropriate titles in the portfolio.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is our nation’s most important agency which we as citizens rely on for consistency. It is because this very meaningful work that their budget must be very demanding as well as costly. To ensure that the GAO is investing their budget wisely, they must ensure their efforts to promote the efficiency and program recommendations are fiscally responsible.
The GAO is mainly identified as independent agency, only having to report to Congress every Fiscal Year with a Performance & Accountability Report. The GAO’s executive committee prepares their financial statements and reports that are reviewed and assessed that will often go into the Performance Report. With the Performance Report the Chief Financial Officer, will report on how the GAO has successfully gone above and beyond budgeting operations.
It is still a federally funded agency, and responsible for many programs the classification code within the federal budget is 005-0107-0-1-0-801. The GAO’s primary job is to support the Congress in meeting its constitutional responsibilities and to help enhance the performance and ensure the accountability of the Federal Government for the benefit of the American people.
There are so many political influences that the GAO has taken part of. After reviewing FY2012, it was astounding to seeing the agency categorizes their benefits into financial and non-financial. I found the non-financial benefits to be more informative, because they seemed to be of a discretionary measure to the public.
One major political influence in a primary accountability area was within the Social Security Administration (SSA). The GAO had found that measures were not taken to implement a backlog for appeal cases for disability clients. The GAO recommended that the SSA develop goals and measures, and identify risks and steps to address those cases. Therefore eliminating and reducing the backlog, and successfully helping those clients. (GAO PAR 2012 Fig. 11)
Another political influence that had a major political influence during FY2012 was when program administrators reported that Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was not using the best approach to collect all the unpaid taxes. The IRS relied primarily on the public’s voluntary approach, and that simply was not working. The GAO recommended that the IRS prioritize and reassign their case approach to a more successful case process. Therefore implementing the tax collection process at a higher rate. (GAO-PAR 2012 Figure)
Analysis of Budgeting Plans and Actual Expenditures
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) influences the budgetary decisions for current and future budget line items given to the GAO. Since the GAO is a part of the four central financial agencies, the OMB has the supervisory role in analyzing the GAO’s budgets and expenditures for a given fiscal year.
Furthermore, the federal budget line items I researched just included the program and salaries. The OMB includes the prior, present, and future fiscal year within the budget. By working closely with the GAO, the OMB integrates performance goals and measures into the budget process.
Implications of Foreign Policy
International policy making may not seem to sound like it would impact the GAO’s current budget or its future budget but it does. After reviewing the GAO’s 2016 Performance & Accountability Report, and the GAO’s 2018 Fiscal Request it was clear to see where the funding was invested. Under the GAO’s second goal “Respond to Changing Security Threats and the Challenges of Global Interdependence” (GAO-17-1SP) that we can it in detail stated they are responsible for reporting on the following:
· Oversight of Humanitarian Aid to Syria
· Addressing Southwest Border Security
· Combatting Nuclear Smuggling
· Proposing Data on Proposed Assistance to Palau
· Enhancing National Bio Surveillance Capacity
· Reducing Migration of Unaccompanied Children from Central America
Those are just a few issues the GAO must address and report on to Congress. Within my review, some of these challenges required additional funding than others. Raising the numbers of the future years budget lines.
Budget Request and Recommendations
One of my recommendations to the GAO would be to improve data centers used to assess and collect their reports. If a budget request were made to enhance their technology, and allow them to save funding over the course of time. “The Government Accountability Office has called on Congress to consider a possible extension to the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act‘s data center optimization and consolidation provisions in order to provide federal agencies more time to meet the Office of Management and Budget‘s performance targets and cost savings objective.
GAO made the recommendation after it found that 22 out of 24 agencies mandated to take part in OMB’s Data Center Optimization Initiative reported minimal progress in meeting the agency’s five performance targets for fiscal 2018, the agency said in a report released Wednesday.
These targets include virtualization, server utilization and automated monitoring, energy metering, facility utilization and power usage effectiveness.
The report also showed that of the 22 agencies, 17 of them lacked plans to satisfy the OMB metrics by Sept. 30, 2018, which is a day before the FITARA provisions for data center consolidation expire on Oct. 1, 2018.
The congressional watchdog also found that 18 of the 24 DCOI-covered agencies had not fully deployed automated monitoring platforms to measure server utilization.
GAO urged those agencies to develop and submit plans to OMB to facilitate the implementation of such monitoring tools for data centers.”
Another recommendation would make to the GAO would be to implement new computers or devices that would enable them to go paperless. Therefore, saving the agency any money on reports that may still be generated. These devices could also be costing the agency money, because they are outdated and not sufficient to what the agency requires.
Running head: CIA HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 1
CIA HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 5
CIL Human Resource Management
In Central Intelligence Agency, some of the important people involved are the Human Resource Officers who aid the CIA in carrying out and supporting global intelligence actions. Since the experts are trusted, they become the major partner to the CIA. Some of the main roles of the officers are planning, talent attainment, staffing and choosing, workers development, performance management and retention among many others. Moreover, the join with the high officials in developing, implementing and determining the human resource policies, plans and methods that cooperate with CIA and Intelligence talent projects. The paper describes the CIA human resource management systems and processes and also provides ways in which the systems are improved.
The main aim of CIA is to take, analyze and assess outside intelligence to help the president and the high administrative policy makers in making decisions that concern to national security (Brewster et al., 2016). Some steps are adhered to in ensuring that this sensitive sector operates according to the plans put in place. Together with the human resource officers, the team points out the problem influencing the security of the nation. For example, they could investigate on the plans that the terrorists are planning against the nation. They then plan on how to collect the information. In collecting the information, several methods could be used. One of the methods is translating the foreign print media information which acts as an open source. The imagery satellites also take pictures from above, and the image experts provide reports based on what they see for example the number of airplanes that they have identified in the air. While the signal analysts evaluate the coded information, the operational officers include outsiders to provide vital information about their nation.
After the information is collected, it is fully evaluated, and the relevant information is taken into account. In evaluating, some of the actions include determining what might take place, the reason for taking place, time of occurrence and the impact on the nation. Notably, political issues are not involved in analyzing of information. The information is provided to the president every day and also to the intelligence team. CIA analysts, together with the human resource officers, do not form policies since the recommendations are left for other organizations for example State Department or Department of Defense. However, these bodies utilize the information that is given by the analysts. Notably, CIA is not a law enforcement institution since that is the responsibility of the FBI though they work together.
Some requirements must be attained for one to be considered a human resource officer in CIA. One must be a holder of a Bachelor’s degree in one of the human resource disciplines. The person must also have attained experience in establishing interpersonal associations and effective in problem-solving and work management. Also, the person must have adapted working without supervision and doing work keenly since intelligence is a sensitive sector (Wilensky 2015). The person must also be equipped with technological tools especially the ones involving information. Apart from that, the person should have acquired the basic information on projects management and have the capability to interpret the business rules. Finally, the applicant ought to learn how to implement and use the human resource software.
CIA has not fully become effective which means that there is room for improvement. One of the areas that require improvement is on the association between the analysts and the policy makers. Where the analysts get close to the policy makers, they tend to provide reports according to the official's expectations and not what is happening on the ground. This leads to wrong decisions being made and the enemies could get a chance to get into the nation. Notably, when the analysts are too far from the policy makers, their information is less considered as well. This is an area that ought to be an advancement to ensure that the analysts are not closely associated with the policy makers and at the same time, their information, which is the foundation for policies is considered. The other area of improvement is the quality of information. The analysts have to ensure that the information given to the policy developers is of quality. Quality information helps the policy makers gain confidence in the information given, and they get determined to make decisions concerning the security of the nation. Therefore, the information technology tools used should be effective and the information collected in the right ways to convince the law makers that it is the condition of the nation. Also, the intelligence must be made to reduce its distance with policy making process. This is to ensure that the policies that are put into place follow the required processes so that the system can be effective and to ensure that the citizens get to develop confidence about being protected by the state (Lowenthal 2016).
In conclusion, basing the paper on the human resource management systems and processes, it is clear that this is a sensitive sector in the nation and the right processes, as well as improvements, should be implemented to ensure that intelligence is maintained.
Brewster, C., Houldsworth, E., Sparrow, P., & Vernon, G. (2016). International human resource management. Kogan Page Publishers.
Wilensky, H. L. (2015). Organizational intelligence: Knowledge and policy in government and industry (Vol. 19). Quid Pro Books.
Lowenthal, M. M. (2016). Intelligence: From secrets to policy. CQ press.
Table of Contents
Introduction Page 3
Administrative Ethics Page 3 &4
Leadership Influences Page 4 &5
Legal Decisions Page 5 &6
Strategies for Consideration to Administrative Processes Page 6
Improvements to Administrative Processes Page 7
In this paper, I will develop an in-depth analysis and evaluation of the U.S. Government Accountability Office’s ethics, cooperation, leadership, and leadership decisions. I will then provide recommendations for the agency. To obtain these recommendations I have conducted interviews with agency representatives and researched related sources concerning the agency.
The Government Accountability Office (G.A.O) has been serving the United States for over 80 years. During that time, they have encountered many businesses or programs that have tried to mislead either Congress or the American public. It was very interesting to read President Obama was first one the list. One of the articles I was reviewing was concerning our healthcare premiums and the copays or deductibles that would suddenly rise. The GAO reported their opinion; however that is all it can do report an opinion on how Treasury funds were spent to pay insurance premiums to help keep them from going any higher. Some in Congress felt the President bend the law to his own interpretation, and others felt the help to the health insurance was needed. (NY Times 9, 2016)
The second article I reviewed involved a very rich Chinese realtor that purchased several entertainment companies. However, sixteen members questioned this foreign company’s purchase. It seems that it raised a matter of national security. Who would have thought that movie theaters could be measures of national security? Well as put by these members of Congress these “soft companies” as they called it, could use media and propaganda to control the public. A letter was sent to the GAO to initiate an investigation on the Chinese realtor Dalian Wanda Group. (NY Times 9, 2016)
Within this same article, you can see why Congress is a little skeptical with foreign companies as they continue to buy within the United States. They make mention of another company, Sygenta being Swiss. This company mainly farming chemicals, however they are owned by a Chinese Chemical Corp. I could see why our Congress would be concerned with this information. If foreign purchases of this nature continue the GAO must review these companies.
With the large number of departments found within the umbrella of the GAO, there are just as many leadership roles to assess and how they relate to the political arena positively or negatively. The GOA is a neutral and independent agency that reports to the Congress, most of the time it is called the “watchdog”. Most of the leaders have not been received with a welcome hug, but they have got the job done. The following are the three leaderships I have assessed:
· John R. McCarl: He was the first Comptroller to the GAO for over 15 years. Not many people know how he became appointed. However, he was a very decisive leader. During his time as Comptroller he made many decisions concerning government expenses, conducting audits, and many other crucial fiscal matters. Most times his harsh decision was met with controversy, and Congress would pass legislation changing the law.
· Joseph Campbell: An actual accountant to take the role of the Comptroller at the GAO. In the line of succession, Campbell was the fourth leader within the GAO. He became the Comptroller after Lindsay C. Warren the previous Comptroller had died due to poor health conditions. However, Campbell made great changes to the GAO by bringing in a program that would recruit college graduates that concentrated in the field of auditing. Campbell trained everyone within the GAO and completely revised the agency; he was there to protect the taxpayer’s money. However, other leaders were not as happy to welcome him.
· Elmer B. Staats: As the fifth Comptroller, Staats was one of the best leaders of the GAO. He was seen as a strong advocate of public service and provided constructive change within the GAO. Staats worked to focus on GAO’s internal planning processes and on expanding its work and issue areas to more effectively serve the Congress. Staats was the Comptroller during the Vietnam War, and under those dangerous conditions GAO’s auditors conducted fieldwork. Staats made sure that office remain operational. Much like this this, there were a great deal of many other issue Staats worked on during his 15 year term. He did well to improve many issues within our government.
The GAO reports on many areas on the vast agencies within our government. While researching the regulations they have helped to enforced I found that they first reported on the changes to our voting systems back in 2008. These changes have helped shaped the many voting changes we have seen throughout the current years. Many may say we still have flaws within our voting system; however the GAO enforced the necessary changes to help many groups in our nation’s population that were not being accessed. Another report was prepared and directed for the Committee of Homeland Security on the importance of Cybersecurity. The report pointed out all major sectors such as banking, healthcare, communications, safety, etc. It detailed why it was necessary for the government to work together with the private sector and its IT systems. The report labeled it a matter of national security. This report was generated on September 2008, it is now 2017 and during this year we have seen many of our private sectors hack and taken down constantly. It was just good accountability on the part of the GAO to understand to partner with the private sector in this area and to use their power was even better.
Strategies for Consideration to Administrative Processes
According to the GAO’s Summary of Performance and Financial Information Report for the Fiscal Year 2016, the GAO made progress within four challenges the agency faced. The four challenges were human capital, engagement efficiency, information security, and telework. (GAO-17-2SP: Published: Jan 18, 2017. Publicly Released: Jan 18, 2017.) The brief summary given to the challenges did not indicate if the challenges were overcome with success.
If the GAO were to expand the training and ensure the telework program were to be success. The telework program has become essential in the workforce in our nation. However, without proper management many employees suffer and return to regular office life. Another challenge mentioned by the GAO was engagement efficiency. Since the GAO is a rather large agency it should utilize several methods of outreach and communication. Methods to keep the levels of feedback continuous, providing the employee with support from management.
Improvements to Administrative Processes
To bring immediate improvement within the GAO, I recommend a change to their management style and internal control. If perhaps a change were to be made in this area, then the challenges found within human capital, engagement efficiency, information security, and telework would not continue. If the same offices within the GAO continue to meet the same challenges, there is definitely room for improvement within these areas.
Monitoring the internal controls to improve the challenges the offices would increase their accountability. Noting any progress if any, implementing any necessary changes accordingly. Assessment of the management style has to be taken under consideration. Identifying the managing challenges and planning what changes would work strategically.
1) Pear, R (2016, 9/29) U.S. Paid Insurers Funds Meant for Treasury, Auditors Say. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/30/business/obama-affordable-care-act.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FGovernment%20Accountability%20Office&action=click&contentCollection=timestopics®ion=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=8&pgtype=collection
2) Wong, E. (2016, 9/30) Chinese Purchases of U.S. Companies Have Some in Congress Raising Eyebrows. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/01/world/asia/china-us-foreign-acquisition-dalian-wanda.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FGovernment%20Accountability%20Office&action=click&contentCollection=timestopics®ion=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=7&pgtype=collection
3) Wong, E. (2016, 10/5) As China Strike Deals, U.S. Considers Expanding Foreign Reviews. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/06/world/asia/china-congress-media-fdi.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FGovernment%20Accountability%20Office&action=click&contentCollection=timestopics®ion=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=6&pgtype=collection
4) U.S. Government Accountability Office official website Retrieved from: https://www.gao.gov/about/history/goodgov.html
5) U.S. Government Publishing Office Retrieved from: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GAOREPORTS-GAO-08-814/pdf/GAOREPORTS-GAO-08-814.pdf
6) U.S. Government Accountability Office Retrieved from: https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-17-2SP
7) U.S. Government Publishing Office Retrieved from: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GAOREPORTS-GAO-08-1075R/pdf/GAOREPORTS-GAO-08-1075R.pdf
Joe A. Mundo
This paper develops an in-depth analysis and evaluates of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) accountability, organizational design, decision-making process, and implementation and then provides recommendations for improvement. In this paper, conducts interviews of the VP of Accounts and the leaders of the CIA to analyze the current position or situation of the agency.
The CIA was established in 1947 by the US President Harry S. Truman through the signing of the National Security Act. The Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was also created the National Security Act to serve as the head of the United States intelligence community. The CIA engages in development, research and development of high-leverage technology for purpose of intelligence (Central Intelligence Agency, 2015). The CIA works as a separate agency and also works closely with other organizations in the Intelligence Community to ensure that Washington policymaker or battlefield commander receive the best intelligence. The CIA’s main goals/objectives are:
· To address such high-priority issues such as counterterrorism, nonproliferation, counterintelligence, international organized crime, narcotics trafficking, environment, and arms control intelligence through creating special and multidisciplinary centers (Jackson & Schaefer, 2009).
· To create the strong partnerships and relationship between the several intelligence collection disciplines and all-source analysis
· To analysis the Intelligence Community efforts and all source on the full range of topics that affect national security
· To contribute in effectiveness of the overall Intelligence Community through managing services and participating with other intelligence agencies those are working in the areas of research and development and technical collection (Smith, 2003).
The below figure shown the current organization design of the CIA that indicates the Director of the CIA is the main responsible for effectively run the function of the CIA. The below figure of the current organizational design indicates that the hierarchy level of CIA is the director, executive director, director of intelligence, director of science & technology, national clandestine service, director of support and then the other intelligence agencies (Turner, 2014). The current organizational design figure indicates that director of intelligence, director of science & technology, national clandestine service, and director of support are contributed more in providing services to its primary recipients.
The current organizational design of the CIA indicates the director is played major role in making major policy decisions and the other directors have the limited responsibility in the agency. It indicates the weakness in the organizational design of the CIA because one person (director) making major policy decisions that would not appropriate way of decision making (Jackson & Schaefer, 2009). Generally, the organization and the agency created team or group such as board of directors those are taken major policy decision because in compare to single person success rate of high of group decision making.
Figure of the Current Organizational Design
(Source: Central Intelligence Agency, 2015)
On the basis of the above describes weakness in the current organizational structure, it recommends that not only the director but also the executive director, director of intelligence, director of science & technology, national clandestine service, and director of support should be involved in making major policy decisions. In addition, the CIA also increases it hierarchy level or organizational level through divided other intelligent agencies according to their field (Zegart, 2009). Theses changes in the organizational structure impacts on the agency’s decision making that ensure success of the agency. Moreover, increases hierarchy level or organizational level by divided other intelligent agencies according to their field would be beneficial of the CIA’s to effectively deliver quality services.
(Source: Central Intelligence Agency, 2015)
Less involvement of the people in decision making is one factor that can affect the CIA’s success. Less involvement of people in making major policy decisions can influence on the effectiveness of the CIA’s planning, organizational design, decision making, and implementation. In addition, less divided of responsibilities in different fields’ directors and only main director have all responsibility indicates the weakness of internal factors that appear to have the effect of impeding the organization’s implementation of its policy and for meeting its goals/objectives (Turner, 2014). Moreover, less hierarchy level also indicates internal weakness of CIA because it provides their services in all areas of the US, so less hierarchy level impact on implementation of its policy effectively in overall country.
It can be recommended that the CIA’s should divided responsibilities in some other field directors such as executive director, director of intelligence, director of science & technology, national clandestine service, director of support to improve its effectiveness in the areas of planning, organization, and implementation. Moreover, the CIA’s should involve some members in major policy decisions making to ensure the success of the decision (Daft, 2015). In addition, the CIA’s should included more agencies of the countries those working in different fields in it functions related intelligence to improve its effectiveness in the National Intelligence. These changes in the organizational current structure should be appropriate for the CIA’s to enhance its effectiveness in the areas of planning, decision making, organization, implementation of strategies and policies that would help it to achieve their goals and objectives.
1) Central Intelligence Agency. (2015). About CIA.
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