In the first two written assignments, you selected one vulnerable population in need of a new program or service in your community. (Immigrants & Refugees) In this project, you will finalize the research that allows you to understand elements that go into designing and launching a community service. The Final Project will be written using a persuasive tone, such that you would be able to present it in order to gain community and organizational support for your program. The Final Project must demonstrate an understanding of the reading assignments, class discussions, as well as your research and application of new knowledge. Your project must contain the following elements:
Your final project will demonstrate quantitative literacy, which shows your ability to identify and solve problems. Additionally, you must demonstrate integrative learning, which means you combine your earlier learning from this and other courses, analyze data from multiple perspectives, explore issues to their full extent as is required in the assignment, as well as incorporate your own personal and professional experiences.
Be detailed and convincing in describing the above elements. For your presentation, you may choose between the following formats:
The Final Paper:
The PowerPoint Presentation:
Shayna L. Rocourt
HCA 430 Special Population
Professor Kathy Ogden
November 24, 2020
In recent years, migration is on the rise around the world. Individuals migrate from their native countries voluntarily to foreign countries because of political unrest and war, leading to them being forcibly displaced from their native lands to look for refuge in neighboring foreign countries. Access to healthcare services for such individuals has always been a significant concern for immigrants who cannot access healthcare services just in the same manner as natives do get (Raphael, 2013). In this regard, refugees as vulnerable groups are exposed to health risks and inequalities that negatively impact their well-being and overall health outcomes. This paper aims at exploring the barriers that impact the health of this vulnerable populations, on a marco and micro-level, it will also explore legal barriers.
Micro-Level Financial Barrier That Impact the Health of Immigrants and Refugees
Financial confinement is identified as the most significant barrier in accessing healthcare in some countries. A barrier might also develop from financing healthcare because of the different restrictions for national health systems and families (Vicol,2012). This depends on if the health services are financed through taxes, insurance, or both. The patients' health insurance regulates the availability of health care services, and insurance for public health accessibility is normally limited towards those who are employed. Unemployed individuals are compelled to opt for private health insurance coverage, which is very expensive. Thus, in theory, immigrants or a refugee can easily access health care in various health facilities. Still, in practicality, the cost of health care is unaffordable to immigrants and refugees, limiting the ability to enjoy the perceived privileges.
Financial barriers also provide restricted access, and it is usually not available to immigrants and refugees. The payment mode for healthcare services barriers accesses it to the vulnerable (Brussels, Spencer & Hughes, 2015). The cost of healthcare services is one of the biggest barriers in health care. The entitlement to primary and secondary health care services by immigrants and refugees is not achievable, they must make payments for the services' full cost without fail. Due to most refugees and immigrants' social, economic conditions, access to financial services, and securing employment is further restricted by the law. The lack of necessary documents to work in the host country increases the rate of poverty among this vulnerable population. States should there for enforce a mechanism that ensures all refugees and migrants access public health care services on the same basis as the natives of that state by providing free services, removing limitations on access to health insurance, and subsidizing insurance premiums.
Macro-Level Financial Barrier That Impact the Health of Immigrants and Refugees
Insufficient funding of international bodies which provide empowerment to theses vulnerable groups includes The United Nations Relief and Works Agency, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Program, United Nations Children's Fund, International Organization for Migration and International Committee of the Red Cross. This poses a challenge to cater to them in the host countries they took refuge in. In addition to the poor funding by the international communities, a poor framework to guide the use of the exiting funds results in corruption and misappropriation of funds. As a result, refugees and immigrants do not engage proactively in the decision-making process and how such funds can be used for their well-being. More vigorous and constant financing of such multilateral bodies and country-based bodies for resettlement of refugees will definitely guarantee protection of these refugees and improve their incorporation in the local society.
Legal Barrier That Impact the Health of Immigrants And Refugees
Law-based and policy-based suggestions regulate immigrants and refugees' right to access the services of health care. In places where there is a legal recognition of immigrants, refugees, and proper health services, a person's legal personality is crucial for them to access health care services. Accessing the highest attainable health care service is determined by legal policies and regulations of migration, which lead to administrative procedures in nature that need to be followed so that refugees can easily access health care. Barriers that are administrative and the timeframe given for documents to be processed and proceeding applications make refugees impossible to access healthcare (Bradby et al., 2015). Legal frameworks do not always warrant the absolute right of accessing healthcare services, and systems that use social insurance are an obstacle to refugees. UNCHR recommends (UNHCR, 2011) that the successful approach to improving the right to access such services is eradicating all legal-based barriers. Improving the situation by creating a reconciled shared labeling system for refugees will make it easy to fulfill the right to access health care services.
Regulatory, Legal, Ethical Requirements for Health Care Services for Refugees and Immigrants
Migration affects healthcare services and airs several ethical and legal challenges. States that receive migrants have to know how to undertake health research and public health surveillance that is migration‐sensitive to achieve effective health programs with zero stereotypes. The level of healthcare given to different migrant groups should also be checked. Also, it is unclear how value differences at death are dealt with (Wiener et al.,2013). Thus, to addresses the health inequalities that refugees and immigrants are exposed to, it is essential to have a total overhaul of the legal frameworks. Instead, policies developed should cater to the immigrants and refugees' needs and limit barriers to access to care.
Brussels’ and Spencer S. and Hughes V. (2015) Outside and In: Legal Entitlements to Health Care and Education for Migrants with Irregular Status in Europe COMPAS
Bradby, H., Humphris, R., Newall, D., & Phillimore, J. (2015). Public health aspects of
migrant health: a review of the evidence on refugees and asylum seekers' health status in the European Region.
Raphael D. (2013) Challenges to promoting health in the modern welfare state: the case of
the Nordic nations. Scand J Soc Med;42:717.
UNHCR – United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (, 2011). Ensuring Access to
Health Care: Operational Guidance on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas.
Vicol M-C. (2012) Barriers to care. In: Loue S, Sajatovic M, eds. Encyclopedia of immigrant
health. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2603.
Wiener, L., McConnell, D. G., Latella, L., & Ludi, E. (2013). Cultural and religious
considerations in pediatric palliative care. Palliat Support Care, 11, 47–67.
Shayna L. Rocourt
HCA Special Population
Professor Kathy Ogden
November 16, 2020
Vulnerable Population; Immigrants and Refugees
Immigrants and refugees are somewhat similar, yet two different words that describe one particular group of people. According to the UN, an immigrant can be defined as someone who changes the country in which they reside in, regardless of the reason for immigration or legal status. On the other hand, refugees are defined as people who flee their country of residence for reasons of “fear of persecution, conflict, violence, or other circumstances that have seriously disturbed public order, and who, as a result, require international protection” (Office of the United Nations High Commisioner For refugees, 1972). Immigrants, as well as refugees, required protection as they are viewed as vulnerable populations. This part of the disadvantaged community lacks the capability to protect themselves from risks.
This group of people experience barriers in obtaining social amenities such as healthcare and education. These barriers are based on sometimes their income or ethnicity. Due to their lack of sustainable income, lack of resources has left the easily manipulatable to engage in unsafe and sometimes illegal business. This has created a belief, in the United States more so, that immigrants or refugees cause all the crimes and other social problems in society, leading to more segregation. Not all individuals classified as immigrants or refugees are vulnerable. Society has divided them into categories based on their ethnicity and culture. For instance, in the United States, immigrants or refugees from Latin America are wrongfully regarded as drug dealers or assumed to be connected to a particular gang. On the other hand, people from Arab countries are viewed as terrorists. This kind of stereotyping has only led to more segregation and exposes such groups of people to manipulation. Some immigrants live quite a wonderful life, especially those in a high social status.
Factors Affecting Vulnerability
The following are some of the factors that affects vulnerability of the immigrants and refugees.
Currently, there has been an influx of immigrants and refugees all over the world. Many countries have been faced with the huge challenge of handling the insane numbers of people seeking better conditions than they have left behind. Although there is a moral obligation for states to grant safe passage or environment to immigrants and refugees, current political change does all but that. Some of these political decisions have been mostly informed by insecurity and economic pressure to the host countries. The United States has been at the forefront in making drastic political decisions negatively affecting immigrants and refugees. The current president has repeatedly stated that immigrants are criminals. He has also tried to pass a bill to build a wall to prevent immigrants and refugees from entering the United States. Further, they have imposed a travel ban that prohibits issuing visas to citizens of some of the largest Muslim countries based on national security (Kanno-Young, 2020). Such political decision has communicated to the people that immigrants do not belong in that country, giving them the right to intimidate, assault, and segregate them.
There is a significant difference between immigrants and refugees in economic matters. Immigrants choose to migrate and the countries in which to migrate to, based on this decision's economic benefit. At the same time, refugees are forced to leave their country of origin due to an emergency or unforeseen contingent. Many of the host countries have diverse decisions regarding this group's involvement, especially the refugees, in beneficial economic activities. For their advancement, immediate access to the labor force and active integration programs are crucial for the refugee's future career path, but usually never happens. Depending on their age, gender, and education, a refugee is less likely to get employed than a native. It only makes them more vulnerable, as they are also economically unstable.
Society's perception towards refugees and immigrants highly affect the advancement of these parties in their host countries. Due to economic strain, the natives of the host countries have started to see immigrants and refugees as threats to their economic well-being. Many have accused refugees or immigrants of stealing their places in the economic sectors. Others believe that such people's existence in their country is the root cause of all their national problems, including matter security. Many see Arab immigrants as terrorists, regardless of their position in society. This stereotyping by society has made the life of immigrants and refugees unbearable in the host countries as discrimination and xenophobia is openly depicted (Nyamnjoh, 2014).
Health Need for The Vulnerable Population
The right to health is universally recognized as a fundamental human right regardless of a person's administrative status. Due to the conditions they are exposed to during their transit, or during their stay in the host country, refugees and immigrants are at a high risk of falling sick (World Health Organization, 2019). Therefore, there is a need to provide access to quality healthcare services to immigrants and refugees. With the difference in legal status and language barriers, access to health services has been challenged within the host countries as most countries do not provide health strategies for immigrants and refugees.
Proposed Continuum of Care
In order to protect this vulnerable population of immigrants and refugees in the matter of healthcare, there is a need for the host country to come up with a well-defined program. A comprehensive program should lay down protective and sustainable healthcare. Long-term care should be the goal of this program. For any program to be a long-term solution, the host country must show its application's willingness and commitment.
Firstly, healthcare provision to the immigrants and refugees should be integrated with the national public healthcare program. It would ensure that everyone has access to quality healthcare services regardless of legal status. For better management and accountability, it should be implemented at the community level, especially in the areas where immigrants or refugees are prevalent. The country should also change their attitude towards such people by eliminating all forms of discrimination against them. It will go hand in hand with the immigrants' and refugees' increased productivity to the host country's benefit.
Implementation of community level programs has been proved to be the best program in providing healthcare to refugees (Elena Riza, 2020). The research shows that partnership between the national government and the community will ensure that mental health, non-communicable diseases, primary care, maternal, women's, and children's health are accessible. It also speaks of the adoption of disease prevention activities through training programs to improve vulnerable populations, such as immigrants and refugees.
Elena Riza, S. K. (2020). Community-Based Healthcare for Migration and Refugee. A Scoping Literature Review of Best Practices, 9-13.
Kanno-Young, Z. (2020, January 31). Trump Administation Add Six More Countries To Travel Ban. The New York Times.
Nyamnjoh, F. B. (2014). Exorcing the demons within: Xenophobia, violence and statecraft in contemprary South Africa. Journal of Conteprary african Studies, 397-401.
Office of the United Nations High Commisioner For refugees. (1972). UNHRC. Geneva: United Nation High Commisioner for Refugees.
World Health Organization. (2019, May). Draft Global Action Plan 'Promoting the health of refugees and migrants. Retrieved from Refugee and Migrant Health: https://www.who.int/migrants/en/
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