First, you will explain what is anthropology and then you will associate with a movie that is about an anthropological example.you explain the movie ( summary) and you will link with anthropology. I will give you below presentations of topics that are about anthropological examples. you will write 1-2 pages in a freshman english
Anthropology as Cultural Analysis: Lila Abu-Lughod: Where are halfies and feminists in cultural analysis? Provocation, challenge to anthropology. Fundamental distinction between the self and the others. Ethnographies of the particular => Tactical humanism
Halfies belong to two worlds, but not completely, in between. Feminist the other is under the constant attack of the self. Conflict (discrimination, imposition, unequal rights) History of anthropology:
* Western men study non-Western “savages”, “barbarians”, whose cultures are frozen in time. Ethnographic present as a writing style as opposed to the dynamic and ever-developing Western civilization.
Anthropologists who think that they “discover”!
Colonialism, decolonization, imperialism: Edward Said’s Orientalism=> Problem of representation and interpretation
Self and Other definitions depend on which criteria even in one society, race-ethnicity/class/gender. Age and other demographic variables. Status. Subcultures, counter cultures.
Anthropologists’ multiple accountability towards their readers and cultures the study. Two groups overlap now. Discipline is reconstructed after Said.
Three ways of writing against Culture:
1) Discourse and Practice: Strategies, improvisations, rituals
and rules given different meanings, legitimizations.
2) Connections and interconnections: People, goods, ethnographers and the people they study.
3) Ethnographies of Particular: No generalization and no claim for objectivity. No hierarchical authority.
The complexity of human beings’ everyday lives and social relations. => Tactical humanism.
Understanding the others and their human rights. Convey the fragmented and fluid sense of culture. Change the politics.
Anthropology, i.e. learning about the others require time and patience. High, low culture, popular culture. Same things have different meanings: Dog as a pet, hunting equipment, pig as a pet. Social boundaries in everyday life, and how we cross them. How we treat differences, don’t talk to strangers!
Classic Norms as the Lone Ethnographer working on “timeless traditional culture” in his fieldwork and “discover” the tribes.
Founding fathers, like Durkheim, trying to find out patterns and questions how to achieve social stability. 1960s and 1970s. This changed drastically. The youth movements, feminists, LGBT movements challenged all sciences and education. Cultural and social analysis are remade.
Geertz: a) Object of analysis: Anyone can study any culture.
b) The language of analysis: No longer ethnographic present, historically situated.
c) The position of the analyst: Not neutral, ever-present and increased self-awareness. Taking an analytical distance: Make familiar strange, make strange familiar.
Anthropological analysis must be something btw. museum display and garage sale.
Ethnography: The Classics: Bronislaw Malinowski, The Argonauts of the Western Pacific. Seligman’s student. Founder of Social Anthro. First real ethnographer. Polish, England, US (1884-1942). Lived when Europe was in turmoil, world wars. Intellectual family. Field diaries. Law, economy, customs and traditions, magic and rituals, social norms, all parts of the cultural life. Meanings behind actions. Like Emile Durkheim, functionalist, each action and institutions function for the society as a whole. Macro and micro levels.
He lived with them, learned their language, observed and interviewed them. “A native among natives” Full account of the complexity of human nature. Magical ceremonies and spells necessary for gardening and commerce (Kula Ring). Magic is significant for economic activities and welfare, to control the nature. Malinowski: Different aspects of life are so interwoven they cannot be separated.
Trobrianders’ social and economic life depends on Kula, a particular trading system. Ideas, ambitions, desires and vanities of “Tribesmen” (vs “savages”)
“Imagine yourself suddenly set down surrounded by all your gear, alone on a tropical beach, close to a native village, while the launch or dinghy which has brought you sails away out of sight”. Poetic, “white man’s burden”. Unpredictable, unknown. Depression, boredom, problems in communication. Claims to be scientific (objective). Intimate details of family life, toilet, cooking etc. Differentiation of public and private lives, ordinary vs. ritual, complexity of social life, institutions and mentality. Appreciation. Description of the Kula Islands, topography. Seasonal voyage, an exchange system: Shell-disk necklaces circling the ring clockwise through North), shell arm-bands, south and counter- clockwise. The items do not have fixed values, values com from their particular history. New items like tobacco and clay pots become part of the ring. Given as a “gift” for social bonding, prestige. Cooking, eating and chatting together by the fire. Later on, singing and dancing. “Cannibalism before White men”. Totemism, matrilineal society. Man belongs to his mother’s totemic division. Women enjoy freedom. Critical of too much freedom of sexuality, promiscuity, free love, leading eventually to marriage.
Malinowski and Trobrianders
Evans-Pritchard (1902-1973), British, sir. Structural functionalism, cultural translation. Nuer in Eastern Africa, Sudan, Nilotic tribes. Less studied before him, on a mission. Objectivity claims. Read literature, find what is missing, learn the language. “The Nuer who call themselves Nath”. Origins and interactions between the tribes. Political institutions and economic livelihood interlinked. Ecology also informs them. Territorial system of spatially well-defined groups (hamlets and huts) . Smaller groups more interaction. Kinship order. Political: Tribe=> Territorial segments. Feuds and leopard-skin chief, sacred person with no direct political authority. No government, no law, “ordered anarchy”. Prophets. Social Groups: Clans => Lineages (dead or alive).
Social differentiation in terms of sex and status (members of dominant clans). Difficulties in fieldwork. Fishing and chatting with them. He came as an enemy, disgust, a more nuanced account than Malinowski. Dialogue on page 12. Sabotages. Later on friendships. Male world. Unmarried girls were more free than the marrieds, visiting his tent.
Marjorie Shostak, Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman: 1981. Nisas childbirth in her own words in her in-laws’ village. Her surprise and shock. Division of labor, her husband hunts for her to eat after the birth, he is not interested in baby, “the one which I heard the cries of”. Boy/Girl?. !Kung, gatherers and hunters, bushmen near Kalahari Desert. Nearly extinct. Before agriculture and settling down. What was it like to be a woman in a culture so different than the researcher’s? No claims of superiority, just difference. Appreciate their broad knowledge of environment, and how they share their food and other goods. Decipher animals from its tracks. No one has much more than the others. Long disputes, accounts of successful hunts, musicians and story tellers, oral culture. Medicine ceremonies, rituals. Modesty, no bragging. Nisa as the main story teller, her experiences and emotions.
Immense sky, 6-7 circular grass huts. Children play at the center. Semi-arid, too hot and cold. Masters of survival, adapting to ever-changing, dramatic demands. Flexibility in settlements. Everything has to be carried. Simple technology. Fluid residences in camps. Reciprocal generosity, especially in sickness or need. Travel and forage different areas during the day. Everybody, even children and elderly, look for food, full collaboration. Settle down at night. Women high status, do most of the gathering of food. %20-40 of diet depend of hunted meet by men. Food rarely stored. Excellent diet, variety.
Shostak’s difficulties in adjusting to the life and learning the language. Pregnancy and childbirth. Marriage patterns in detail. Polygamy, sharing a husband. Sexual play. Traditional methods of abortion. Her difficulties in moving with them. Physically exhausting. More honest and open account. Her successes and failures as well. She tries not to romanticize them, reflect them as they are. Implicit comparisons. Reluctance to generalize. Nisa’s story.
James Clifford, Akhil Gupta and George Marcus: Ethnography Beyond «Culture» Globalization, neoliberalism and technological developments since the 1980s => Its effects on cultures and societies. Social Sciences are in a crisis, had to reinvent themselves => New Ethnographies. Based on the criticisms of the old ones (Malinowski, Pritchard and Shostak). Interdisciplinary, team work, multi-sited ethnographies.
They include not only how they see the people do ethnography about, but also how these people view the ethnographers. A more nuanced positioning within the fieldwork site. Ethnography is actively situated between the powerful systems of meaning, questions at the boundaries of civilizations, cutures, classes, races ad genders => Encounters. Making sense of their cultures and social lives.
Political and historical contextualization in postcolonial World (political => economic and cultural influence)
Ethnographic work enmeshed with political inequalities, complex, ambivalent, hegemonic and counter-hegemonic. Indigenous ethnographers. «Cultures do not hold still their portraits» Fluidity, fragmentation and flexibility. Edward Said-Orientalism, textual reading of societies, egzotization, otherization. => self-reflexive. Culture is not an OBJECT to be described/ unified corpus of symbols and meanings. It is contested, temporal and emergent. Against fetishization. Society is not equal to culture.
Akhil Gupta: reconstruction of space, geography, not a frozen grid. Displacements, migrations, dual citizenships, many people live in different places in different times. Technologies, virtual belongings. Critique of the word «subcultures» and multiculturalism, they assume that there is one particular culture. Localized global cultures. East and West, North and South, First, Second and Third World all criticized. Why do we need all those categories?
Interdisciplinary: Open to new knowledge, science and technology, medicine, drones. Team work, multiple belongings, citizenships: Multi-sited ethnography. Borders, Mexica-US, China-Malaysia. Places and insititutions where different people encounter with one another: Schools, labs, airports. Boundaries: Physical and cultural (racism, homophobia). Larger sense of «encounters».
Space imagined and reconstructed. Fluid senses of belonging and identities. More complex and nuanced. Who is the real American? Real Turk? «home», « family» fictive kinship, multiple homes. Shostak: Nisa depicted as egzotic and isolated. Colonial encounters not mentioned.
Postmodernity: Fragmented truth, collaboration of the production of knowledge. Perspectives coming together.
Contemporary political debates, discourses and dynamics, NGOs, international organizations. Developmental issues, media, social media. Arts, museums and markets. Marcus: Specialization of disciplines: Gender Studies, Cultural Studies.
Visual analysis in new ethnographies:
National Geographic: Rooting of People, Territorialization of National Identity. Liisa Malkki. “To be rooted is the most important and least recognized need of human soul” (Simone Weil, 1942). Complex categorizations of “homeland”, “culture” “territory”, “deterritorialization”. Social and political constructions. 19th century inventions, nation-states. Main determinants of identity and sense of belonging, conflictual and controversial.
National Geographic maps, different coloured countries, set boundaries. But what about minority groups? Refugees? Cultural diversity => Family of Nations. Not as neat as it seems. Emotional ties to the soil, botanical metaphor of a tree and its roots. If died in a foreign country, ashes brought to home country. Vandalism in cemeteries. Metaphysical links between land (place) and people.
Farming, settling down, sedentary life, adopt to natural environment and climate. Labeled as “indigenous people”, but who is more authentic? Romantic vision. Mixed ethnicities.
Moral and spiritual value of territory and its loss. Refugee as anomaly? A generalized category? Age, class, status, gender, migration experience not counted. “Objectified and undifferentiated mass”. Categorical purity through being a refugee in Hutu-Tutsi tribal war. Very debatable.
“True nation” => “moral community”.
“Identity is always mobile, processual, partly self-construction, partly categorization by others, partly a condition, a status, a label, a weapon, a shield, a fund of memories etc…”.
“Diasporas always leave a trail of memory about another time and place and create new maps of desire and attachment” In-betweenness.
Turkish Minorities’ Migration from Bulgaria to Turkey
Marking Time Along the Bulgarian-Turkish border. Ayşe Parla: Persecution in 1984-1989. Migration en masse in 1989. More than 300.000 people. Then in 1990s collapse of the socialist regime, economically induced temporary migration, exit in every 3 months, taking care of children, elderly and sick, particularly trained. Away from their own loved ones, children. Life stories, struggles, going back and forth.
First integration as a minority successful, education in Turkish in Turkish schools, efficient health system, publications in Turkish, cultural activities. Socialist consciousness => ethnic isolationism, integration => assimilation. Changing of names, closing down of Turkish schools, no Islamic symbols in public places, ban in speaking Turkish in public places. Special agreement with Prime Minister Turgut Özal, opening up the borders. “racial kin” (soydaş).
Turk in Bulgaria, Bulgarian in Turkey => always considered as a minority. Difficult living conditions. Leave in one night, everything they can carry in a car, wait and walk through the buffer zone in the border, 300 meter. Borders getting closed ocassionally. Mid 1990s, collapse of the regime: To improve their working conditions in Bulgaria, temporary work with Bulgarian passport. Melike’s story baby-sitting, away from her own baby. Missing her badly, emotional. Cigarettes to make the time pass quicker. But a couple, Gül and her husband servants in a nice private residents, like there so much, that they reluctantly go back to Bulgaria when their kids threaten them to leave school if they do not come back. “Wounded pride issue”.
“Borders in the dark, scary, hundreds of mouth crying” Semra abla. They will suck you back. Hamdi Dayı who went back to home, Bulgaria.
He got used to the Bulgarian system, different system in Turkey. He felt alienated. Different people, different notions of where is home.
Gender and Sexuality: How the woman anthropologist changed the notion of fieldwork? Through experimental fw. especially on gender and sexuality, mixture of different genres, questioned their own authority and subjectivities. Defining Feminist Ethnography: V. Kamala: First women anthropologists, wives of well known mala anthro.s, : Side-stories, what they wrote was highly devalorized as “subjective” and “anectodal”.
Now: Western women question their own positionality and biases.
Essentialism (biological universalism) vs. cultural relativism, universal sisterhood: Different types of oppressions.
Let’s not separate fieldwork data from theory and personal experiences (Gender Revolution documentary)
“Confessional Field Literature”: First-person narrative in fieldwork. “I” among the observed others. Relationship of trust. Failures: Joanna Briggs among Inuit Eskimos, judgmental on their sex roles (male authority, not much female autonomy), showed her anger, marginalized, ostracized for good. Respect who has what kind of reputation, and who can go out with whose permission. Actively participate in festivities, ritual dances, circumcision ceremonies etc.
Laura Bohannon, trying to get into the men’s world, called as the “witch”, negotiator between village elders on important decisions on small pox drugs.
Language: Diary, fieldnotes, videos, documentaries, letters, streams of conscioussness.
Boas’s student Zora Neale Hurston: African and Carribean cultural life, language. Harlem Renaissance. Poetic. Intersectionality idea.
Laura Bohannon Zora Neale Hurston
Out in Nicaragua: Local and Transnational Desires after the Revolution: Florence E. Babb
Social and political rivalry between gay and lesbian activisms: Visibility and effectiveness. Larger historical dynamics, neoliberalism and conservatism after the SANDINISTA revolution and rule in 1979-1990 and AIDS related activism (safe sex). Definition of gay, as passive (deviant). Many came out when they separated from their large, patriarchal, extended, families with no privacy to join the Sandinista guerrillas. Collective lives and productions, coming out is possible, emerging gay and lesbian movements in 1970s. 1980: Women’s rights, gay movement>lesbian movement, Gay Pride. Bars and streets vs. the house, spaces of activism. 1992, Post-Sandinista, conservative period: Legal criminalization of LGBT, as non-procreative, not natural.
Lesbians more social discrimination => low self-esteem and self-confidence. 1990s, globalization and neoliberalism, gays’ more transnational support. Their voluntary exile to the US and coming back as Miami Boys or Metro Gays, HIV/AIDS related activism, medicalization of “deviance” . Lesbians, less visible, less financial resources. A few queer, transnational elite. Competition for resources among NGOs affected solidarity ties at the national level. Bringing gender => Political activism, citizenship rights and self-determination.
Women’s rights LGBTQ rights: None of us is free, until everyone of us is free.
The Body, Science and Medicine: Emily Martin- Anthropology and the Cultural Study of Science: Questioning the neutrality and objectivity of natural sciences and medicine. Increase in concentration and mobility of capital: Greater misery for the poor (poverty and sickness as viscious circle), longer and healthier lives for the rich. Average life span, 35-78. HIV/AIDs
Martin: Explain the scientific networks through the images and metaphors of citadel, , rhizomes and string figures. Critique of Bruno Latour’s Actor-Network Theory (ANT): Too mechanic and neoliberal: Scientists find resources, gather facts through research, gather allies such as NGOs, governments, private companies, publishers etc as supporters. Narrow and fragile networks: Challenge hegemonic knowledge and authority, and create alternatives. Science in action breaks down the walls of citadel. Porous and leaky walls.
Scientists are not only competitive, aggressive and accumulating individuals. Humanitarian and humane aims, non-material benefits and collaboration. Culture shapes the aims. (And the Band Played on-the Movie).
The Citadel- Communal Living and Protection of Lives and Knowledge
Rhizomes: Often discontinuous, fractured, nonlinear, interlinked roots. Bamboo. Labs, clinics and activists, efforts in vain. Different aims and interests of institutions. Anti-vaccination campaigns in the US, fear of autism, free choice, healthy life=> (super) immune system. Turkey, religious context, alternative medicine.
String Figures: Innovative combinations, immunology and public health. Game for a number of people, competitive (who will mess up first)/cooperative (how long can we keep figures moving). Any location, casual, loose, not much material, basic, simple/complicated. Can be repeated, different versions, Thomas Kuhn’s paradigms,scientific perspective. Culture, nonlinear, discontinuous, it celebrates mystery and opacity, mathematical proofs, theories of contagion. Martin: «Give anthropologists a culture, and we will show how utterly science and its laboratories are entangled in it.
Paul Farmer- Structural Violence in Haiti: Historical and biological aspects. Embedded in political, social and economic structure, routinized, taken for granted, not questioned. Extreme political inequality and oppression, dictatorships and sanctions. Includes symbolic violence as well. Talk in honor of Sidney Mintz. Slavery in sugar plantations in Haiti. Silenced histories of slavery, racism and colonialism=> dictatorships under French and then the US influence. Exploitation of labor and raw material. Army’s wellbeing and health> Citizens’ health care Access, villages with no clinics. Clinics without diagnosis, metastatic breast cancer. Luxury in clothing and food at the expanse of torture and humiliation of the slaves.
Deaths of TB and AIDS, endemic to the island. Dispensable bodies. Very little international investment, only Partners in Health: Structural Violence as a theoretical framework and guide for action. Bring cheaper/affordable medicine, infrastructure, village clinics and public health actions (education). Importance of ethnographic research: Living conditions, poverty and malnutrition => AIDS and TB related diseases. Not only cultural voodoo rituals of exchanging blood and traditions of multiple wives, loose marriages, but social and economic strategies.
Healthcare for all?- Ayşecan Terzioğlu: Political, legal, economic, cultural and social difficulties of being a refugee in Turkey. Syrians in the hospital context. Racist, discriminatory, generalizing, essentializing discourses against Arabs. (NOT Sexism of Arabs!!) Even if Arabs with money and no contested political and social identity, coming to Turkey for medical tourism suffer from those discourses. Syrian refugees much more so. Blamed as bringing diseases from Syria and constantly reproducing (actually it is for economic and cultural survival). The thick boundaries between social sciences and medicine, although health IS a cultural and social issue.
Taking care of the others seen as a professional burden. Language, translation and bureaucratic problems.
Neoliberal view of health: Health as a basic human right => Health as an individual responsibility. Investment in privatization, private medical schools and hospitals.
Race and (Post) Colonialism: There are multiple conceptions of race and these conceptions also change in time, in acc. with historical conditions and events. => Different types of racisms: American=> African American comparison with Africans in Latin America.
Lee Baker: Franz Boas, W.E.B. du Bois, earlier examples of civil rights movements and legal structures => drastic changes: Undoing scientific racism. Refuting its scientific claims.
Early 18th century, racism had religious and moral philosophical basis (missionaries’ White man’s burden)
Late 18th century, racism acquired a scientific basis, measuring of skulls etc. Black people as “subhumans” became a scientific fact, proven by scientific methods!
Evolution (Darwin) => Social Evolution (Spencer): Polygenesis, multiple origins of human species vs. monogenesis, one origin, different mutations. Civil war in the US, over the abolition in slavery, cotton fields in the South required slave labor, traditionalist, religious. Social separation (apartheid) vs. integration? Having their own schools, hospitals, neighbors, allocated places in public transports etc. Avoid close contact, like illness (waiter example). “Do they even deserve education, proper jobs, right to vote, own a property?”
Different opinions and debates. Racist imagery and stereotypes. “Singing and dancing negroes”. Similar to apes. They can’t learn anything. Routine violence and lynching, slaves as properties. Quentin Tarantino’s “Django Unchained”
American Anthropology before Boas: Irreconcilable differences between the two races. Polar opposites. Civilization vs. barbarians. Machines, bureaucracy, laws vs. randomness, hedonism and chaos.
Franz Boas W.E.B Du Bois Rosa Parks
Franz Boas: Late 19th-Early 20th centuries. Born in a wealthy Jewish family, suffered from anti-semitism and prejudices against Jews. Escape to the US, sensitive over race issues, systematic combat against scientific racism. Race does not determine culture and personal character. In his research, he showed what “Negroes achieved so far in civilized world” One race is not necessarily superior than the others. Relativistic, different characteristics. Collaboration with African American civil rights leaders and intellectuals, W.E.B. Du Bois.
Emphasis on principles of democracy, human rights and freedom. Addressed the American needs to be freed from the British influence. (Empathy). Anti-racist research: Advanced military organizations, economic and judicial systems in Black tribes (Nuer). New York: Columbia University vs politicians in Washington.
Leith Mullings: Racism today in the postcolonial and global context. Race as a social construct: “Race does not beget racism, but rather racism generates races”. (1990s). Antiracist anthropology especially after WW2. Racism is genocidal! Racism is related with “culture of poverty” in 50s and 60s, racism in cultural terms. “They” do not benefit from the social and cultural opportunities the American cities offer them. Prefer not to work, have a cultural tendency to be violent.
Biological determinism => Cultural determinism. One- drop rule, black and white polar opposites vs. the spectrum in Latin America, less separation, European descendants have cultural and social supremacy. Comparisons of different conceptions of race and racisms in different countries. Postcolonial world: Source of cheap labor, higher associations with single motherhood, crime and addictions. Cops killing African American “suspects”. Colonial traces-different racisms- still exist.
Urban Sociology and Anthropology=> Chicago School. 1950s. Industrialization and urbanization since the 19th century, common patterns of exclusion and inclusion. Concentric circles, constant move & change. Place People, communities? Intersectional. Physical and symbolic boundaries for the bodies and encounters.
Kolluoğlu & Bartu Candan: Bezirganbahçe and Göktürk. Voluntary and involuntary isolation, lack of encounters and proper communication. Increase in inequalities in access to urban services, health, education and socialization. One group of people serves for the other. The «other», criminalized.
Amy Mills: Kuzguncuk, still a «mahalle» (communal neighborhood) with cozy cafes, where everybody greets each other in the streets. Greeks, Armenians and Jews. Turkification, political events of 1920s-40s, 1955, 1974. Apolitical nostalgia. Exploring one particular space through different scales. Global, national and local. Diaspora visits.
Anthropology in the Anthropocene Era: Where people transform the nature around them and their own nature. Our genes also mutate. GMOs. Exhibition of silicon sculptures in-between species. Ethno-graphy: Writing humans, human interactions between material and non material (other humans, animals –pets, herds, food supplies etc. and plants) elements. Anna Tsing: Human nature defined by interspecies relations. Human is a thinking animal, controlling the others.
Donna Haraway: Cyborg. Artists and ethnographers collaborate, third eye on the forehead. Infinite possibilities. Species travel and interact, inbreed.
Amelia Moore- Anthropocene: Human agency and responsibility together. Environmental Anthropology, ecopolitics. Neoliberalism and environmentalism developed together. Bahamas: Tourism, coral reefs. Cements and stones for the new ones, new colors, sunken ships as tourist attractions for divers => loss of biodiversity, natural reefs disappear, similar to Bodrum. Latour: Geostories. What does geography-human interactions tell us?
Anna Tsing: Matsutake mushrooms, very valuable, only in blasted land. Hiroshima. Life-giving disturbance. Radioactivity.
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