5. CRITICAL BOOK REVIEW (20%)
• The student will write a 7.5–8 page critical review of Jesus According to the New Testament by
James D. G. Dunn. Your goal in reviewing this book is to provide a brief summary and careful
evaluation. A good review should include the following components:
1. Identify the purpose and overall structure of the book;
2. Briefly explain some of the main points of the book. Explain how the book addresses New
Testament issues and differing perspectives of the historical Jesus;
3. Briefly evaluate the clarity and organization of the book; and
4. Evaluate whether this book has provided insight into the subject and achieved its stated
purpose. Does the author satisfy my curiosity about the subject with the questions he raises
and the answers he gives to them? Is the author’s research sound and has it drawn valid
conclusions? Does the author use primary sources? Is the author consistent and logical? Do
biases (and be sure to realize that you, the reader, also have biases) influence the author’s conclusions? Be sure to critically evaluate the book, giving specific examples from the book
and a detailed argument substantiated from primary resources (New Testament itself).
Format for Critical Book Review: Double-spaced, 1-inch margins, Times New Roman 12-point font.
Submissions must be Microsoft Word documents only. The choice of formatting style (e.g., SBL, APA,
MLA, Turabian) is at the student’s discretion, so long as there is consistency. Use inclusive language.
The title page must contain the following: title; student’s name, email address, course name and
number. It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that the instructor receives an electronic submission of the research paper correctly uploaded to Moodle.
JESUS ACCORDING TO
THE NEW TESTAMENT
James D. G. Dunn
WILLIAM B. EERDMANS PUBLISHING COMPANY
GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
4035 Park East Court SE, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49546
© 2019 James D. G. Dunn
All rights reserved
28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Dunn, James D. G., 1939- author.
Title: Jesus according to the New Testament / James D. G. Dunn.
Description: Grand Rapids : Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2019. | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018024862 | ISBN 9780802876690 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Jesus Christ.—Person and offices—Biblical teaching. | Bible. New Testament—Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Classification: LCC BT203 .D859 2019 | DDC 232—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018024862
For St. Paul’s Church,
Chichester, and the Chichester Diocese
Foreword by Rowan Williams
1. Jesus according to Jesus
2. Jesus according to Mark, Matthew, and Luke
3. Jesus according to John
4. Jesus according to Acts
5. Jesus according to Paul: Part 1
6. Jesus according to Paul: Part 2
7. Jesus according to Hebrews
8. Jesus according to James, Peter, John, and Jude
9. Jesus according to Revelation
Appendix 1. The Probable Date and Place of Origin for
Documents of the New Testament
Appendix 2. The Life and Mission of Paul
Index of Subjects
Index of Scripture and Other Ancient Texts
eaders of the New Testament in Christian congregations (and among a wider public too) are quite likely these days
to feel a certain amount of bewilderment at the variety and complexity of what is written on the subject. Those who venture a little into the scholarly literature, as well as those who pick up the latest sensational stories in the media about “lost” gospels and alternative histories, may feel like echoing Mary Magdalene: “They have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him.” What do we— what can we—really know about Jesus? Is the New Testament just the deposit of a confused mass of unreliable traditions, put together under the iron hand of a narrow church authority?
Professor Dunn, one of the most respected and prolific biblical scholars of our time, with a long string of innovative, comprehensive studies of the New Testament text to his name, begins with a simple but all-important question in this book. It is really a commonsensical one: What must have been going on in the life, and indeed in the mind, of Jesus for any of the New Testament texts to have been possible? To ask such a question does not mean that everything we read in the New Testament is a straightforward record of events or that the ideas of the first believers are immediately accessible to us. But it does remind us that the movement whose writings we read in the canonical Gospels, Acts, and letters began with the narrative of a specific historical figure whose words and actions were sufficiently different from the norm to attract attention.
Like some other scholars in recent years, Professor Dunn is skeptical about the skepticism that has prevailed in a fair amount of learned discussion. If certain things had not been true about Jesus, it is simply very hard to see how
certain kinds of text and certain kinds of talk would ever have emerged. Many writers have stressed that there are aspects of the gospel stories that seem to be preserved even though the earliest churches did not fully understand them— like Jesus’s description of himself as “Son of Man” or the whole way he is remembered as speaking about God’s kingdom. If he never said a word about how he understood the death he knew he was risking, it would be hard to see why and how the quite dense and complicated language used to interpret baptism and the Lord’s Supper got started. And—most simply of all, a point well brought out by Professor Dunn—Jesus was remembered as a storyteller in a way that is not true of any other figure in the New Testament and that is rare among his Jewish contemporaries. The parables are among the most plainly distinctive things in the traditions about Jesus, and they tell us something of his understanding of the relation between the everyday and the holy which is still radical.
The New Testament is tantalizing for readers because its texts are both startlingly different from one another and startlingly convergent. Just this mixture of difference and convergence is exactly what should make us pause before accepting the fashionable idea that what we have in the New Testament is some sort of unrepresentative selection of writings which just happened to be acceptable to dictatorial prelates in the early centuries. With exemplary clarity and understated scholarly acumen, Professor Dunn traces both the continuities between these diverse texts and the communities that used them, and the discontinuities, the local emphases and sometimes controversial new twists to the story that developed in some quarters. Many readers will find it liberating to realize that to believe in the consistency of the New Testament is not the same as having to suppose that every writer says the same thing. From the very first, what happens in and around the figure of Jesus is experienced as too immense to be communicated in one telling, seen from one perspective; as the end of John’s Gospel already says so
eloquently, the world could not contain all that would need to be said.
So this survey of what the story of Jesus meant in the first Christian generations becomes a powerful theological testimony to the scale of the mystery laid bare in those events. This is a book that will nurture a faith that is not uncritical but is also being directed constantly back toward the wonder of the first witnesses. It is as we make that wonder our own that our faith grows and deepens; Professor Dunn helps us toward that enrichment of joy, trust, and gratitude.
he Diocese of Chichester, in south coast England, some years ago launched a splendid tradition. It began with the
intention of preparing the diocese for the Gospel of the year —first Matthew, then Mark, and then Luke. Somewhat oddly, I thought, John was never the Gospel for the year. So in Chichester we broke with the tradition after the third year and turned first to John and then to Paul.
In 2015, I was invited to lecture in Canterbury, and the happy thought came to me that I could adapt my Chichester lectures for Canterbury. The obvious focal point was, of course, Jesus—the challenge being to sketch out the different ways in which Jesus was presented by the Gospel writers. With only three lecture slots to work with, and the first three Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) being so similar, it made sense to take them together, when their distinctive features could be brought out by close comparison. John was sufficiently distinctive in itself to be considered separately. That left free a third slot. And what could be better than to start by focusing on what we could know of the reports, memories, and traditions of Jesus and his ministry behind the Gospels?
And so emerged a sequence: Jesus according to . . . First, “Jesus according to Jesus,” then “Jesus according to Mark, Matthew, and Luke,” and finally “Jesus according to John.” These lectures seemed to work well, bringing into sharper focus the distinctive features in each case, indicating how differently Jesus was remembered and his significance celebrated.
Then the thought arose: Why not continue the sequence, highlighting the different impacts Jesus made and the central role he filled in the writings that make up the New Testament? And so emerged “Jesus according to Acts,”
“Jesus according to Paul,” and the rest. Some introduction was necessary in each case. But the old introductory questions that begin particular commentaries on the New Testament writings (Who wrote what, when, and where?) seemed to be for the most part unnecessary. After all, they usually do not much affect what we learn from the writings themselves. But they do help set the writings in their historical context, and thus also help us understand them better—especially when the historical situation helps explain features of the text that we might otherwise misunderstand. So I have added at the end an indication of where and when the writings are thought to come from (Appendix 1). That there is uncertainty in many cases should not detract from the recognition that the documents were written at particular times and to serve particular needs. Also indicated is the probable time line and historical context of Paul’s mission and writing (Appendix 2), since he is the principal contributor to the New Testament and since we have a fuller idea of his mission and writings than that of any other New Testament author.
And then the further thought came: Why not continue on the same pathway? The story of Jesus and reactions to him hardly cease with the end of the New Testament. But to press forward into the second century and beyond, with chapters such as “Jesus according to Ignatius,” “Jesus according to Augustine,” “Jesus according to Luther,” would extend the project into two or more volumes. And I had to admit that I lacked the knowledge about such historic writers on Jesus to do them justice. I also wondered about a final chapter with contributions from friends in our local church adding their own brief testimonies, including my own testimony, “Jesus according to Me.” But to slot our own brief pieces alongside those of the New Testament writers began to seem rather vainglorious. So I let that idea slip away too, not without regret.
Nevertheless, if the present volume has any appeal, there is no reason why other volumes should not follow, with
someone else better equipped than me to draw out the testimony of Christian greats through the centuries. And no reason why a(nother) volume of brief testimonies from disciples of today should not follow. After all, everything we know about Jesus is thanks to the personal testimony of his most immediate followers. But for Christians, Jesus is not just a figure of the past. Christians today are disciples of the present. So why not continue the story of Jesus up to the present, with everyday believers bearing witness to what attracts or intrigues them about Jesus? How about it?
Jesus according to
an we be confident that we are able to get back to Jesus’s own message and views of himself? John Meier
certainly has no doubts on the subject—and the five volumes of A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus include a
clear and fully worked-out answer.1 Perhaps, however, a briefer answer will help focus attention on the key features that enable us to speak with confidence not only of the impact that Jesus made but also of Jesus’s own understanding of what he was about. The obvious way to go about it is to focus on the distinctive features of what the first Christians remembered about Jesus as recorded by the earliest
evangelists.2 The following pages explore this in three ways: lessons learned from Jesus, distinctive features of Jesus’s
ministry, and Jesus’s own self-understanding.3
Lessons Learned from Jesus
There are quite a number of emphases and priorities that we can say with some confidence the first followers of Jesus attributed to Jesus.
The Love Command
The summation of the love command is recorded by the first
three Gospels.4 Since all three agree on the principal features, we need cite only Mark’s version:
One of the scribes . . . asked him, “Which commandment is the first of all?” Jesus answered, “The first is, ‘Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart. . . .’ The second is
this, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.” (Mark 12:28–31)5
The first quotation comes from Deuteronomy 6:5, the fundamental creed of Israel, so it would occasion no surprise to those who first heard and circulated the Jesus tradition. It is the second commandment that would be something of a surprise when first uttered. For it comes from a much less well-known and less-used passage in the Torah: Leviticus 19:18. In early Jewish reflection it is hardly as prominent as the first—the third clause in a verse that is part of a sequence regarding personal relationships and obligations. “You shall not hate in your heart anyone of your kin; you shall reprove your neighbor, or you will incur guilt yourself. You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against any of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD” (Lev 19:17–18).
Such esteem for Leviticus 19:18c as the second of the two commandments that sum up the law of God is exceptional. Explicit references to Leviticus 19:18 are lacking in Jewish literature prior to Jesus, and the allusions that exist give it no particular prominence—though, subsequently, the opinion is attributed to Rabbi Akiba (early second century CE) that Leviticus 19:18 is “the greatest general principle
in the Torah.”6 Since the prominence given in the earliest history of Christianity to the command to “Love your
neighbor as yourself”7 is most obviously attributed to the influence of Jesus’s teaching, it is probably not unfair to deduce that the similar emphasis of Akiba attests the same influence. At any rate, the abstraction and exaltation of Leviticus 19:18c as the second of the two greatest commandments can be confidently attributed to Jesus and strongly attests his influence.
Priority of the Poor
This priority is most striking in several Gospel passages. Notable is Jesus’s response to the rich young man, who had observed all the commandments but lacked one thing: “Go, sell what you own, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven” (Mark 10:21 parr.). Similarly his commendation of the poor widow who in giving two copper coins to the treasury had, in Jesus’s perspective, “out of her poverty . . . put in everything she had, all she had to live on” (Mark 12:42–44 // Luke 21:2–4). In Jesus’s response to the Baptist’s question as to whether he (Jesus) was the fulfillment of (messianic) expectation, the climax in Jesus’s answer is that “the poor have good news brought to them” (Matt 11:5 // Luke 7:22). Notable too is the way Luke begins his account of Jesus’s mission, by narrating Jesus’s reading from Isaiah 61 in the Nazareth synagogue: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor” (Luke 4:18). And equally striking is Luke’s version of the Beatitudes—the first being “Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God” (Luke 6:20; an interesting variation of the version in Matthew: “Blessed are the poor in spirit” [Matt 5:3]). It should occasion little surprise, then, that for Luke a key feature of the gospel is that it is good news for the poor: that it is the poor, the maimed, the lame, and the blind who should be invited to a great feast (Luke 14:13, 21); and Zacchaeus demonstrates his readiness for salvation in that he gives half of his goods to the poor (Luke 19:8).
Of course, the priority of the poor is a prominent emphasis within Israel’s own law (e.g., Deut 15:11). But that the particular concern for the poor so prominent among the first Christians is to be attributed to the influence of Jesus’s own emphasis can hardly be doubted. So with the early concern among disciples in the Jerusalem community for the poor widows among their members that resulted in the first formal Christian organization (Acts 6:1–6). The profound concern for the poor displayed by James attests the same concern (Jas 2:2–6). The same impression is given by
the fact that in the Jerusalem agreement—that gentile converts need not be circumcised—the only other concern indicated was “that we remember the poor, which,” Paul adds, “was actually what I was eager to do” (Gal 2:10). Similarly there can be little doubt as to why Paul gave such importance to helping the poor among the saints in Jerusalem, making a special collection for them in the churches that he had founded, and was willing to risk his own life to bring
the collection to Jerusalem.8 We may be confident, then, that concern for the poor is one of the priorities that the first Christians learned from Jesus.
A particular feature of Jesus’s ministry that caused surprise and shock to his religious contemporaries was his openness to those regarded as unacceptable in religious company. According to the first three Gospels, it was one of the features of Jesus’s conduct that drew criticism from the “righteous.” Early in his account Mark reports the offense Jesus caused by his readiness to eat “with sinners and tax collectors.” “Why does he do this?” complained Pharisees and scribes. To which Jesus famously replied, “Those who are well have no need of a physician, but those who are sick; I have come to call not the righteous but sinners” (Luke adds “. . . to repentance”; Mark 2:16–17 parr.). Matthew and
Luke (Q)9 note a similar criticism later: “Look, a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!” (Matt 11:19 // Luke 7:34). But it is again Luke who gives particular emphasis to this aspect of Jesus’s conduct. He notes the repeated criticism of Jesus on this point: “This fellow welcomes sinners and eats with them” (Luke 15:2). To which Jesus replies with the parables of the shepherd’s lost sheep and the woman’s lost silver coin: that of course the shepherd goes in search of the sheep and the woman for the coin until they find what had been lost (Luke 15:3–10). Luke alone narrates the parable contrasting the prayers of the
Pharisee and the tax collector, in which it is the latter who prays, “God, be merciful to me a sinner,” whose prayer is truly heard (Luke 18:9–14). And it is Luke alone who narrates the episode in which Jesus goes to be a guest with the “chief tax collector,” Zacchaeus, despite the criticism that Zacchaeus was “a sinner.” The episode ends with Jesus’s reassurance that salvation has come to this house, since he (Zacchaeus) also is a son of Abraham (Luke 19:1– 10).
It is hardly surprising, then, that Paul could sum up the gospel in terms of the great reversal—of God’s love for sinners. “God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us” (Rom 5:8). “For just as by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous” (Rom 5:19). And it was Paul who pressed the logic of the gospel: that if gentiles are to be classified as “sinners,” then, of course, the gospel is for them too, justification being by faith in Christ and not by doing the works of the law (Gal 2:15–17). It can hardly be doubted that this extension of the gospel, to gentiles as well as Jews, was the direct result of the recognition that the good news that Jesus brought was primarily for sinners.
Openness to Gentiles
Jesus’s commission of his disciples, in effect to join in his ministry, raises the question whether Jesus himself was open to gentiles: “Go nowhere among the Gentiles, and enter no town of the Samaritans, but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matt 10:5–6). But Matthew records this as in effect simply a (preliminary) phase in Jesus’s ministry, since he takes more pains to emphasize that Jesus saw the gospel as for gentiles also. It is Matthew alone who provides Isaiah 42:1–4 as one of the Old Testament prophecies that Jesus fulfilled, climaxing in the expectation that “in his [Christ’s] name the Gentiles will hope” (Matt
12:21). It is Matthew who adds to the account of the healing of the centurion’s servant the prediction of Jesus that “many will come from east and west and will eat with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven, while the heirs of the kingdom will be thrown into the outer darkness” (Matt 8:11–12). And it is Matthew who ends his Gospel with Jesus commissioning the apostles to “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations” (Matt 28:19). So we can be confident that Matthew was fully in accord with the early Christian conviction that the gospel was also for gentiles and that this conviction was fully in accord with Jesus and with his preaching and expectation during his earthly
Women among His Close Followers
Somewhat oddly Mark concludes his account of Jesus’s crucifixion and death by noting that on the edge of the onlookers were women, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome, who had followed and ministered to him in Galilee, and also “many other women
who had come up with him to Jerusalem” (Mark 15:40–41).11
The oddity, of course, includes the fact that precisely at this point Jesus’s male disciples seem to have abandoned Jesus altogether—though John adds that “the disciple whom Jesus loved” was there with the women (John 19:25–27). Luke and John earlier both tell the touching story of Jesus’s closeness to the sisters Martha and Mary (Luke 10:38–42; John 11). And Matthew and John make special mention of initial resurrection appearances to Mary Magdalene in
particular at Jesus’s now empty tomb.12 The fact that none of these appearances are included in what we may regard as the formal list of resurrection appearances drawn on by Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:3–8 is presumably just a reminder that women’s testimony was not given as much weight as men’s. It is all the more notable, therefore, that, despite what was regarded as the weaker status of women’s testimony, Matthew
and John nevertheless give prominence to the appearances to Mary Magdalene in particular.
That this testimony would have been regarded as shocking to Jesus’s contemporaries may well have been a factor in ensuring that the testimony was preserved and given expression in the written Gospels—a reminder that women were an important part of Jesus’s disciple group and played a vital role within it. And should we not see a connection here with the prominence of women among Paul’s coworkers? That the ex-Pharisee, previously committed to the maintenance of Jewish tradition, including the lower status of women, should after his conversion include many women among his close
colleagues and “coworkers,” a little over 20 percent,13
should probably be regarded as an indication of the often unmentioned influence of the tradition of Jesus’s ministry on Paul.
Openness to Children
The key incident recollected by the first three Gospels is Mark 10:13–16 parr. Notable is the fact, recorded by all three evangelists, that when people brought children to Jesus, that he might bless the children, his disciples rebuked them. Jesus’s own indignant response was, “Let the children come to me; do not stop them; for it is to such as these that the kingdom of God belongs” (Mark 10:14). Mark and Luke add Jesus’s saying, “Truly I tell you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God as a little child will
never enter it” (Mark 10:15 // Luke 18:17).14 Given the notable influence of Jesus on the personal relations of his disciples, we should probably detect the influence of Jesus here too in the “household codes” that appear in the later
Pauline letters.15 Such household codes were familiar then, but notable in Paul’s exhortations is the assumption that children and slaves would be fully part of the Christian gathering and could or should be addressed directly. It is hardly straining the evidence to infer that this too attests
the continuing influence of Jesus’s mission on his disciples.
Relaxation of Food Laws
This is one of the most remarkable features of Jesus’s mission, not least since it cut so sharply across a traditional Jewish concern for purity. Not surprisingly it is given extensive treatment by Mark and Matthew (Mark 7:1–23 // Matt 15:1–20). It begins with some Pharisees’ criticism that Jesus’s disciples “ate with hands defiled, that is, unwashed.” The Greek word used here (koinos = “common”) reflects the distinctively Jewish sense of “profane,
unclean, defiled.”16 Jesus responds by citing Isaiah 29:13: “This people honors me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me; in vain do they worship me, teaching human precepts as doctrines.” And from that he draws the highly critical conclusion: “You abandon the commandment of God and hold to human tradition” (Mark 7:6–8).
The Jesus tradition continues in both Mark and Matthew, by further challenging the traditional Jewish concept of purity (Matt 15:10–20 // Mark 7:14–23). The Matthean version of the tradition is content to draw a sharp comparison between inner and outer purity: “It is not what goes into the mouth that defiles a person, but it is what comes out of the mouth
that defiles” (Matt 15:11).17 But in Mark the teaching is sharper: “There is nothing outside a person that by going in can defile, but the things that come out are what defile [a person]” (Mark 7:15). And in the following explanation that Jesus gives, it is clear that Jesus is remembered as teaching that what goes into a person cannot defile the person. Mark makes the point clear by adding, “Thus he declared all foods clean” (Mark 7:18–19).
We know from Paul that the issue of clean and unclean foods came alive in the wider gentile mission. The issue there was whether Jesus’s followers could eat meat that had been sacrificed to idols (the most common supply of food in
the ancient meat markets).18 Paul’s advice was clear: “Nothing is unclean in itself; but it is unclean for anyone who thinks it unclean” (Rom 14:14). What is intriguing is that Mark’s version of Jesus’s teaching on the subject of food purity seems to reflect the strong affirmation of Paul. In other words, it is in this teaching in particular that we can see the influence of Jesus’s priorities being further reflected on by Paul, and the inferences drawn from his teaching being reflected back into the memory of his teaching.
The Last Supper or Lord’s Supper
Finally, in recounting what Christianity learned from Jesus, we should not forget the centrality in the first Christians’ memory and practice of Jesus’s last meal with his disciples before his death. The first three Gospels make plain how important that special time with Jesus was for his disciples (Mark 14:22–25 parr.). We do not know how frequently the Lord’s Supper was celebrated in the earliest decades of Christianity. But Paul makes it equally clear that the shared meal, beginning with the shared bread (“This is my body that is broken for you”) and ending with the shared cup (“This cup is the new covenant in my blood”), was explicitly remembered as a sacred memory initiated by Jesus himself (1 Cor 11:23–26). It sums up as nothing else does that Christianity is deeply rooted in Jesus’s own ministry climaxing in his death.
It is striking, then, how much of what was important for the first Christians can be traced back directly to the influence of Jesus’s own ministry and teaching.
Distinctive Features of Jesus’s Ministry
For much or indeed most of the twentieth century, primary attention in scholarship on Jesus was given to what the first Christians thought about Jesus. Surprisingly little attention
or concern was devoted to the impact made by Jesus himself, to such an extent that it could easily be concluded that little can now be discerned of the historical Jesus and his teaching. But the probability that Jesus made an impact on his first disciples, and that this impact is clearly indicated in the Jesus tradition, is such an obvious starting point that any scholarship that denies our ability to speak with credibility of the teaching and ministry of Jesus would seem to be unduly skeptical and prejudiced. We have already noted how much in earliest Christianity can be attributed with confidence to the influence of Jesus’s conduct and teaching. Now it can be added that not least of significance is the fact that there are distinctive features of Jesus’s ministry that stand out in the accounts of Jesus’s ministry and that cannot plausibly be said to have originated in later evaluations of his ministry.
The Kingdom of God
When we read the first three Gospels, it is easy and quite natural to conclude that proclamation of the kingdom of God was the principal feature of Jesus’s preaching. Mark introduces and sums up Jesus’s preaching in precisely these terms: “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news” (Mark 1:15). Matthew and Luke both summarize Jesus’s preaching in the same terms: Jesus “went throughout Galilee . . . proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom” (Matt 4:23). Jesus said to his disciples, “I must proclaim the good news of the kingdom of God to the other cities also” (Luke 4:43). When Jesus sent out his disciples in mission, it wa
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