Research Question: What role did the COVID-19 pandemic play in the high voter turnout in the US Presidential election?
This assignment is something that you will be able to draw upon moving forward in the program. A research proposal is a very common start to a research project as it helps to frame out the importance of the project itself and show the knowledge gaps that currently exist in the literature. Typically after a solid research proposal is written, the paper unfolds from there as you have a clear framework to follow moving forward.This assignment requires you to write a proposal that states your research question and your research strategy for addressing it. As mentioned throughout your previous assignments you may draw upon each one to help you build your proposal.Research Proposal:The research proposal must be between 8 pages in length not including title page or references.Your title page should include the working title of your research project, your name, date, and course title. You should also have an abstract on your title page.Your proposal should have the following sections:Introduction: The introduction is where you identify your specific research question and where you set the general context for the study. In this section you need to include:
Literature Review: This short preliminary literature review section reviews the literature important to your specific research question. The literature review focuses on discussing how other researchers have addressed the same or similar research questions. It introduces the study and places it in a larger context that includes a discussion of why it is important to study this case. It provides the current state of accumulated knowledge as it relates to your specific research question. In this section you should:
In your literature review, you should also discuss the theoretical framework to be used in the study. You should ensure you cover the following in your discussion:
From here you would then include a transition into your methodology section.NOTE: Literature reviews can be a bit tricky to write. Think back to how you wrote your short theory lit review in week 4. Chances are you already started to write in a style similar to what one does when completing a literature review. Check out this video (the same one you were guided to in week 4) to help you further prepare to write this section of your proposal. This will not be the last time that you are asked to write a literature review in your academic career so it is important to master this skill.Research Design and Methods: Describes how you will answer your research question or test the hypothesis. This section describes your overall research design and how you plan to collect, synthesize, and interpret your data. It should include:
Conclusion: Reemphasizes the importance of your study and ties the proposal together.Reference List: As with all academic papers you need to references the works that you have cited (direct quotes or paraphrases) in the text of your document and incorporate a complete reference list or bibliography at the end. This list needs to be in the style used within your field. APA= Criminal Justice, Turabian for all others in this course.Remember that the references you use demonstrate your knowledge of the topic area. This research proposal is meant to convince your professor that you not only have identified a worthy question in need of investigation but that you are also capable of carrying out the research involved to successfully answer that question. At the very least you should have referenced 12-15 peer-reviewed sources in this proposal.Since multiple writing styles are in use within this course, on your title page, please note which style you are using within your assignment. This will help me cater my comments to the style you are using. The style you use needs to be the one that is used within your program of study.Format:Standard academic format will suffice: 1-inch borders on all four sides, double spaced, with times new roman 12-point font.
WK 2 Apply: SWOT Analysis
Page 2 of 2
Complete a SWOT analysis from a global perspective, if applicable.
Summarize your findings from the SWOT analysis for the CEO of the organization you chose. Address the following in your 2- to 3-page summary:
· How would you match the organization’s strengths to its opportunities?
· How would you convert the organization’s weaknesses into strengths?
· What recommendations do you have to mitigate the impact of the threats?
· What action(s) does the organization need to take to advance their organization goals and/or expand their competitive advantage?
· Why does the organization need to take this/these action(s)?
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Copyright 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2019 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Running Head: GAME THEORY IN COVID-19 AND THE US PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS 1
GAMING THEORY IN COVID-19 AND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS 6
Game Theory in COVID-19 and the US Presidential Election
Gaming theory is a part of the substantive theory that incorporates aspects of social interactions. This paper will illustrate how the social interaction theory, to be more specific, and the gaming theory has impacted the 2020 U.S. elections. When determining the best candidate to represent their citizens in the local, state, or federal government. In the United States, the voting system and the electoral process plays an important role. Society is made up of more than just a collection of people to include the structures and institutions such as family, government, and culture. The outbreak of COVID-19 threatened the staff that that holds the society together. This paper aims at applying the social interaction theory (gaming theory) in discussing the COVID-19 pandemic and United States Presidential elections.
COVID-19 and the 2020 Presidential Election
The 2020 elections were unlike any other election conducted before, since the coronavirus pandemic's outbreak brought about a new order of things, especially when conducting campaigns. In the process of election, each voter selects a candidate that they believe will represent their policies and beliefs that they propose to be enacted within the government. In the 2020 election; most people preferred a candidate that would look into their issues, especially the coronavirus pandemic which most people were not happy about how the pandemic was being handled. Some saw the election as the opportunity to implement the changes they desire, whereas others had faith in the existing leadership. However, several questions need to be asked to understand how the federal system and the election represents the United States citizens. Some of the questions are; will the candidates elected to represent all the concerns, beliefs, and ideas that their voters have? Can there be a single perfect candidate that can represent their ideas of every single voter? The answer to these questions is a big "no." Not all the elected candidates will match their positions to cater for all perfectly, (Galea, et al, 2020).
The needs of the citizens at the same time, not all the voters should expect to have their voices and needs met by the candidate they have elected in the United States. Elections are held after every four years where the voters are presented with an opportunity to elect the candidate they prefer to serve as the president. The 2020 election was significant to the United States citizens primarily because Donald Trump was becoming more unpopular among the voters who elected him to power in the year 2016. This can be attributed to his failure to appropriately handle the COVID-19 viruses that resulted in many deaths of Americans. It was seen that many groups of people all across the United States were working tirelessly to prevent Donald Trump's re-election. Through the endorsement and support of other candidates whom they believe would provide better leadership than they currently had. Many candidates, both from the Republican and the Democratic parties, in the presidential race, making it difficult for the voters to select the candidate they feel will most likely present their beliefs effectively. In such a case where there are many candidates to be elected into positions, the best technique to use is to decide between supporting any candidate with the high probability of presenting their needs instead of letting candidates create platforms that will enable them to gain as many votes as possible. In this case, most citizens preferred Joe Biden, who was against most of the policies that President Donald Trump was pushing. More so, Joe Biden was not satisfied with how the pandemic was being handled, which represented most Americans' view, (Martens & Schlicht, 2018).
One of the most influential and widely used techniques in identifying a winning team in sports is to "protect their lead," where the team holds their leads from the campaign time until the game is over. This technique was also applied in the 2020 presidential election on the candidate that had a strong lead and is estimated to have a high probability of winning the elections in any given election. Basing on the statistics conducted by Ipsos Synovate, it revealed that most states in the United States were "turning blue," which signifies that Biden was likely to win the presidential elections. For the voters who want to see their candidates elected, they tend to exploit the strengths of their candidate while exploiting the weaknesses of the opponent. Through this technique, the voters were able to align their views with the candidates' views while determining the candidate that they prefer less. It is important to note that it is important to note that the 2020 election and the campaign process were like nothing that had been witnessed in the history of the United States. It was a unique moment since there was fewer physical rallies and conventions as it used to be. There was less queuing by voters to elect their preferred candidates. Most of the campaigns were done virtually so to mitigate the effects of COVID-19. To Joe Biden, this was an opportunity to compete effectively with president Trump who had the government resources to campaign, basing on the gaming theory, the candidates that have the low probability of winning are supposed to give room for those that are more likely to win and offer their support to him instead of diluting their ideas, (Baker, et al, 2020).
This enables the candidates to assess the opponents that are likely to win to develop tactics to compete effectively. The presidential elections can be as challenging as two opponents meeting in a game where everyone uses their skills. One team must maintain their stay in the game to win, whereas the other will lose the game by leaving. In the party nominations, most of the candidates will lose while the others will win. The winning will allow them to compete with other candidates from other parties to be elected.
In most cases, the voters would prefer a candidate whom they think will put their interests at heart. Many people have different opinions about the candidates. However, this was limited due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has limited the physical campaigns. Therefore, there have been less opinions because the fact limited the candidates there were no much interacting in platforms whereby those that will be voting can ask question physically so that they can be answered in a way that I will be satisfactory. Through this, there are less opinions that the voters had. Some ideas seemed scattered and unreasonable from the voters' side, especially when they presented their own beliefs to obtain votes. When candidates present their own beliefs, the less trustworthy they become in the eyes of the voters. These kinds of applications are essential when it comes to the consideration of events on large scales. This is because such an incident shows that they want the presidency to sit more than they want to work in the government, and this is not possible, (Landman & Splendore, 2020).
This theory talks about since an election is like a game, it is essential that in any election however they may not have the very perfect or amount of information that is relevant in making of a decision it is at that time one should seek for an optimal solution for such kind of game. The fact that the current President was sick and was suffering from the Corona Virus, made some people want to shift the election. Still, the President refused some recommendations from his own party. This is one way in which COVID-19 had influenced the election for the U.S., (Zhou, 2018).
The voting process itself was significantly affected because of COVID-19. Some people opted to vote very early through the mail to avoid any physical interaction with other people due to COVID-19. This was a unique election on its own because there were no specific rules about how a person was supposed to vote, but due to the hard time that the country was facing. It was only directives that they owned the ability to vote right from their home. The mail was then cast on the ballots, and then later counted. This was seen as the slowest process, even some anticipation that the results would not be readily available.
Baker, S. R., Bloom, N., Davis, S. J., Kost, K. J., Sammon, M. C., & Viratyosin, T. (2020). The unprecedented stock market impact of COVID-19 (No. w26945). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Galea, S., Ettman, C. K., & Abdalla, S. M. (2020). Access to health care and the 2020 US election. The Lancet, 396(10254), 803-805.
Landman, T., & Splendore, L. D. G. (2020). Pandemic democracy: elections and COVID-19. Journal of Risk Research, 1-7.
Martens, J., & Schlicht, T. (2018). Individualism versus interactionism about social understanding. Phenomenology and the cognitive Sciences, 17(2), 245-266.
Zhou, X. (2018). Optimal transmission strategy for CPS based on Stackelberg gaming theory (Doctoral dissertation).
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